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Heart valve disease can affect any of the valves in the heart. The heart valves have flaps for opening and closing with each heartbeat, allowing blood to flow through the heart of the upper and lower chambers and the rest of the body.

The heart has four valves :

  1. Tricuspid valve located between the right atrium and the right ventricle
  2. Pulmonary valve located between the right atrium and the pulmonary artery
  3. Mitral valve, which is located between the left atrium, and left ventricle
  4. Aortic valve between the left ventricle and the aorta

Blood flows from the right and left atria across the tricuspid and mitral valve, allowing the blood to flow into the right and left ventricles. These valves then close the blood flowing back into the atria. Once the heart chambers are filled with blood, they begin to contract, forcing the lung and aortic valves to open. Blood then flows into the pulmonary artery and the aorta. The pulmonary artery carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs and the aorta, the body’s largest artery, is responsible for carrying oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body.

Basically, the heart valves work by making sure that blood flows in the forward direction and does not secure or leaks. If an individual has a valvular disease, the valve will not be able to do this job properly. This can be caused by regurgitation, stenosis or a combination of both.

Some individuals may experience no symptoms while other disorders such as strokes, heart attacks, and thrombosis occur when the heart valve disease is left untreated.

Valvular heart disease

Mitral valve prolapse

This can also be called floppy valve syndrome, click marbles syndrome, balloon mitral valve or Barlow syndrome. It occurs when the mitral valve does not close properly, sometimes causing blood to flow back into the left atrium.

Most people with mitral valve prolapse do not require symptoms and no treatment as a result. However, symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue and coughing may indicate that treatment is necessary.

The treatment includes surgery to repair or replace the mitral valve.

Bicuspid aortic veins

This happens when a person is born with an aortic valve that has two valves instead of the usual three. In very severe cases, symptoms of this type of disorder are present at birth. However, some people may know that they have decades to go without this type of disorder. The valve is usually able to work for years without causing any symptoms, so most people with premolar aortic valve disease are usually diagnosed only in adulthood. According to the Cleveland Clinic, 80 percent of people with this form of heart valve disease will be operated to repair or replace the valve, which usually happens when they are in their 30s or 40s.

Symptoms include shortness of breath during exercise, chest pain and dizziness or fainting. Most people are able to successfully repair their aortic valve with surgery.

Valvular

This occurs when a valve is unable to fully open, which means that insufficient blood is able to flow through the valve. This can affect one of the heart valves and can be caused by the heart valve thickening or stiffening.

Symptoms can include chest pain, shortness of breath, tiredness, dizziness, and fainting. Some people do not need treatment. Other people may use valvuloplasty, which uses a balloon to inflate the valve or flap replacement surgery.

Valve insufficiency

This can also be called a “leaky valve” and occurs when one of the heart valves does not close properly, causing the blood to flow backward. Symptoms include shortness of breath, coughing, tiredness, palpitations, drowsiness, and swelling of the feet and ankles.

The effects of valve failure vary from person to person. Some people need to monitor their condition. Others may need prescribed medications to prevent fluid retention while others have valve repair or replacement.

Causes Of Valvular Heart Disease

There are a number of causes of various heart valve diseases. Causes can be :

  • birth defect
  • Endocarditis inflammation of the heart tissue
  • Rheumatic fever inflammatory disease brought on after group A streptococcal infection
  • Age-related changes, such as calcification
  • Heart attack
  • coronary artery disease
  • Cardiomyopathy degenerative changes in the heart muscle
  • Syphilis is a relatively rare sexually transmitted infection
  • hypertension
  • Aortic aneurysms abnormal swelling or protrusion of the aorta
  • Atherosclerosis Arteriosclerosis
  • myxomatous degeneration weakening of the connective tissue in the mitral valve
  • Lupus a chronic autoimmune disease,

heart-valve-disease-symptoms

Heart Valve Disease Symptoms

Symptoms of heart valve disorders according to the severity of the disease. Usually, the onset of symptoms indicates that the disorder is affecting blood flow. Many people with mild or moderate valvular heart disease experience no symptoms. However, symptoms can be :

  • shortness of breath
  • palpitation
  • fatigue
  • Chest pain
  • Dizziness and fainting
  • a headache
  • to cough
  • Water retention or swelling in the lower extremities and abdomen
  • Pulmonary edema or excess fluid in the lungs

How are heart valve diseases diagnosed?

If you have symptoms of heart valve disease, your doctor will start by listening to the heart using a stethoscope. He or she will listen for any heart rate abnormalities that might indicate a problem with the heart valves. Your doctor may also listen to the lungs to determine if there is fluid retention as well as check your body for signs of water retention, both symptoms of heart valve problems.

Other tests that can diagnose for valvular heart disease include :

  • Electrocardiogram is a test that shows the electrical activity of the heart. This test is used to check arrhythmia.
  • Echocardiography uses sound waves to create an image of the heart valves and chambers.
  • Cardiac catheterization is another test to diagnose valve disorders. This test uses a thin tube or catheter with a camera to take pictures of the heart and blood vessels. This can help to determine with your doctor the nature and severity of the diseased valve.
  • A chest x-ray can be ordered to take a picture of your heart. This may be your doctor if your heart is enlarged.

Magnetic resonance imaging can create a more detailed picture of the heart. This can help to confirm a diagnosis and help your doctor determine how best to treat your valve disorder.

  • A stress test can also be used to determine how the symptoms are affected by physical exertion. The information from the stress test can help your doctor determine the severity of your condition.

Treatment Options

Treatments for heart valve disorders depend on the severity of the disease and symptoms. Most doctors recommend starting with conservative treatment. This includes :

  • consistent medical supervision
  • smoking
  • a healthy diet

Medications that are usually prescribed are :

  • Beta-blocker and calcium channel blocker to help control heart rate and blood flow
  • Reduce diuretics for fluid retention
  • vasodilating drugs that open or dilate the blood vessels

Surgery may be needed if the symptoms increase in severity. This can be used to repair heart valves with patient’s own tissues or heart valve replacement with animal valves, donated valves,

Diastolic cardiac insufficiency exists when signs and symptoms of heart failure are present, but the left ventricular systolic function is still preserved (ejection fraction above 45%). It is important to differentiate the diastolic from the systolic heart failure so that it can be optimally treated.

The incidence of diastolic heart failure increases with age; in about 50 percent of elderly patients with heart failure, there is isolated diastolic dysfunction, write Chhabi Satpathy and colleagues in the American Family Physician. If diastolic dysfunction is diagnosed early and adequately treated, the prognosis is better than for systolic dysfunction.

Diastolic heart failure is clinically and radiologically indistinguishable from systolic heart failure. However, if there is a normal ejection fraction and an abnormal diastolic function with signs and symptoms of heart failure, diastolic heart failure can be diagnosed. Unlike systolic, diastolic heart failure can occur in isolation. Common causes of diastolic dysfunction include cardiac ischemia, hypertension, aging, obesity, and aortic stenosis. Rarely, the disorder is caused by myocardial diseases such as cardiomyopathy, storage diseases, and amyloidosis or sarcoidosis or by a disease of the pericardium.

In isolated diastolic dysfunction, there is a disorder of isovolumic ventricular relaxation and decreased compliance of the left ventricle. The transmission of higher end-diastolic pressures into the pulmonary circulation can cause pulmonary congestion leading to dyspnea and eventually right heart failure.

Diagnostics

Heart failure may be manifested by fatigue, exertional dyspnoea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, orthopnea, cervical venous stasis, rales, tachycardia, third or fourth heart sounds, hepatomegaly, and edema. Cardiomegaly and congestion of the pulmonary veins often occur in chest radiographs, but these findings are non-specific and can also occur in non-cardiac diseases. It is difficult to distinguish diastolic from systolic heart failure on the basis of physical examination alone.

Two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography is of great importance in the diagnosis of diastolic heart failure. This study not only provides important information about ventricular size, myocardium, heart valves, systolic function, and pericardium but also provides information on diastolic transmitral and pulmonary venous blood flow. In echocardiography, the peak velocity of blood flow through the mitral valve in the early diastolic filling phase corresponds to the e-wave. The atrial contraction corresponds to the A-wave. From these values, the I / O quotient is calculated. Usually, E is greater than A, and the I / O ratio is about 1.5.

In early diastolic dysfunction, relaxation is disturbed and the I / O ratio drops to less than 1.0 with atrial contraction. As the disease progresses, left ventricular compliance decreases, increasing left atrial pressure and early left ventricular filling despite disturbed relaxation. This paradoxical normalization of the I / O quotient is called “pseudo-normalization”. In patients with severe diastolic dysfunction, the left ventricle is filled, especially in early diastole, resulting in an I/O ratio above 2.0. Although cardiac catheterization is preferred in the diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction. However, two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography has proven to be the best noninvasive method in everyday clinical practice. Rarely, radionuclide angiography is performed, especially in patients who find echocardiography technically difficult.

diastolic-heart-failure-treatment

Treatment

Primary prevention of diastolic heart failure includes nicotine abstinence and the aggressive treatment of high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, and coronary heart disease. Lifestyle changes such as weight loss, cessation of smoking, diet change, restriction of alcohol intake and physical activity serve to prevent diastolic and systolic heart failure. Diastolic dysfunction can remain asymptomatic for many years. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent irreversible structural changes and systolic dysfunction. At first glance, it seems that the treatment of diastolic and systolic heart failure is not very different. However, the treatment of diastolic heart failure is limited due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. In addition, the optimal treatment for systolic heart failure may result in exacerbation of diastolic heart failure.

Improvement of the left ventricular function

For diastolic dysfunction, it is important to control the heart rate and prevent tachycardia to maximize the diastolic filling period. Beta-blockers are particularly useful for this purpose, but they do not directly affect myocardial relaxation. Beta blockers should be used in particular for the treatment of diastolic heart failure, if a high blood pressure, coronary heart disease or arrhythmia.

Optimization of hemodynamics

Hemodynamic optimization is achieved primarily by reducing cardiac preload and afterload. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers

More and more people today are suffering from cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis and heart problems of various kinds. The cost of treatment for patients with atherosclerotic diseases is increasing rapidly. Experts predict that they will triple by the year 2030. This raises the question: Who should pay for it and why are not these illnesses declining, despite today’s medical possibilities?

The cause of cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular diseases are typical diseases of civilization, which are now in the list of the most common causes of death in the first place. Actually, this development is completely incomprehensible, because it is well known that diseases such as hypertension and arteriosclerosis, which are causally responsible for the development of stroke and heart attack, are so-called affluent diseases. And this prosperity goes hand in hand with a widespread over- and malnutrition. Since it would be logical, already preventive, but at the latest in the treatment of existing diseases to set exactly at this point. At this point, we would like to inform you about how you can prevent arteriosclerotic diseases – ranging from increased blood pressure to stroke or heart attack – through targeted nutrition.

Does a modern lifestyle require modern food?

Nowadays time is passing us by. Everything is always faster and everything should be bigger, better and more functional. Unfortunately, this development does not stop at our food. Our food today no longer deserves this name, which describes a living means of life. The word food is certainly more appropriate because it is now predominantly about products that are full, but especially sick. We need to come back to those healthy foods that provide our body with all the nutrients and vital nutrients to withstand the tremendous demands of today.

The quality of our food

Most of the food consumed by us in the form of canned bagged or other prepared meals consist largely of heavily processed raw materials of inferior quality. Through the processing process, nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are denatured and vital nutrients such as vitamins, enzymes, phytonutrients, etc. are no longer present, or only in traces. Our body suffers a severe deficiency, which manifests itself in different diseases. Of course, the cardiovascular system also reacts to the nutrient and vital substance deficit with corresponding symptoms.

Excessive consumption of refined salt, refined sugar, white flour products and foods contaminated with a wide variety of preservatives, colorants, flavor enhancers, etc. also has negative effects on heart health.

Tips for the best diet for heart healthy

Of course, the following tips will not only help protect your heart and keep you healthy. Your entire organism will benefit:

  • Do not use finished products as far as possible.
  • Instead, buy seasonal region food such as fresh, organically grown fruits and vegetables.
  • If you eat animal products, pay attention to biological, animal welfare or buy products from grazing.
  • Use unprocessed stone or Ursalz salt and season your meals as often as possible with fresh herbs.
  • When using fats, always ensure first-class organic quality and avoid consistently hydrogenated fats such as margarine, hardened palm or coconut fat. In finished products, almost exclusively hardened fats are used.
  • Exchange the unhealthy snacks (chips, pretzel sticks, biscuits, etc.) for healthy alternatives such as nuts, almonds, spelled sticks, rice waffles, chocolate with a high cocoa content, etc.
  • Drink as many as 2 liters of still water per day, so that your body can excrete already existing pollutants as quickly as possible.

Good fats protect the heart

“Eat rich in fat instead of low fat”. This recommendation completely contradicts what the vernacular usually holds to be correct, because so far was that a low-fat diet, the health of the heart would benefit. However, it has long been recognized that fat is a very important component of a functioning nutrient exchange and that a lack of healthy fats can contribute to chronic inflammation, which in turn leads to vascular damage and thus to heart disease. Especially important in this context is the quality of the fats. Healthy fats, which include primarily high-quality vegetable oils that are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, provide good protection against heart disease. In particular, fats with a high proportion of omega 3 (linseed oil, hemp oil, etc.) are of great benefit to the heart and should, therefore, be consumed daily.

But also high quality saturated fats are beneficial to heart health, such as. Native and cold pressed organic coconut oil (not to be confused with hardened coconut fat, which is found in many finished products). Natural coconut oil contains the so-called lauric acid, which increases the proportion of “good” cholesterol in the body and thus supports the health of the heart.

Omega 3 fatty acids

Cold-pressed organic vegetable oils with high omega-3 content are regarded as extremely valuable oils, especially with regard to heart health. Omega-3 fatty acids are able to keep the walls of the vessels flexible, promote blood circulation, inhibit the formation of blood clots and reduce inflammatory processes in the body. Of course, the cardiovascular system benefits first and foremost from these wonderful properties. Therefore, the use of an omega-3-rich vegetable oil, especially for already existing heart problems is strongly recommended. Since the positive properties of omega-3 fatty acids also affect other body areas, use of these oils is generally indicated.

Omega 3-rich oils should not be used exclusively, but always in combination or in alternation with other high-quality oils and fats.

Omega 6 fatty acids

People with a predisposition to cardiovascular disease should avoid vegetable oils with a high omega-6 fatty acid content. The reason for this is due to the linoleic acid also contained in these oils in large quantities.

Definition: What is a Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and how does it arise? CHD is the most common heart disease of the entire world population. It is also referred to as ischemic heart disease. In Germany, approximately 6 million patients are affected. Scientists believe that the incidence of coronary heart disease will increase with increasing life expectancy.

CHD primarily affects people over the age of 50 and is one of the most frequently reported causes of death in all industrialized countries. It is a disease of the heart caused by occlusions and constrictions in the coronary arteries.

These arteries are among the blood vessels that supply the heart with energy-giving nutrients and oxygen-rich blood. Especially with physical stress, the blood transport through the body is reduced and there are typical symptoms of CHD.

How is the calcification of coronary arteries formed?

Calcification of coronary arteries is caused by deposition of arteriosclerotic plaques by :

  • cholesterol
  • saturated fatty acids
  • lime-like particles

In some cases, initial nutritional damage already exists due to :

  • high blood pressure
  • Diabetes mellitus

The human immune system does not recognize the plaques as endogenous. This is followed by inflammatory reactions and the plaques become increasingly unstable since activated immune cells no longer fulfill their task and die in the same. Deposits begin to open by the progressive increase. The contents enter the bloodstream and finally the coronary vessels, where it settles again.

Typical symptoms of CHD

Depending on the stage of development of CHD different symptoms occur. It is distinguished into three different forms of stages of coronary heart disease.

Latent CHD

A latent coronary heart disease is characterized by mild to moderate constrictions of the coronary arteries. There is coronary sclerosis.

Although this phase is asymptomatic, there is already a significant mismatch between oxygen supply and demand. Despite the absence of symptoms, it is possible to detect a reduced perfusion of the heart muscle. In diabetics often no typical symptoms are noticeable.

Stable CHD

At this stage, sufferers notice typical CHD symptoms that occur under certain conditions. In most cases, they return alone or can be treated with medication (stable angina pectoris).

Angina Pectoris is the leading symptom of coronary heart disease. Affected notice a feeling of tightness as well as pain directly behind the breastbone. Primarily, the symptoms occur in cold but also exercise. Other factors, such as mental stress or high-fat meals, can trigger these symptoms as well.

The resulting pain often spreads to the left arm or to other body regions such as upper abdomen, jaw or neck.

Other typical symptoms of CHD are:

  • Shortness of breath (shortness of breath)
  • sweats
  • Arrhythmia

Occasionally affected people feel dread. As soon as the affected person comes to rest or stays warm again, these symptoms of angina pectoris return.

Typical symptoms of angina pectoris vary in their frequency, intensity, and duration. They are closely related to the current progression of the CHD. In patients with renal insufficiency or diabetes mellitus, chest pain persists. This also applies to persons over 75 years and operated on. Here are breathlessness, dizziness, nausea, and radiation of pain in the abdominal area as warning signs.

Unstable CHD and acute coronary syndrome

Similar symptoms of angina pectoris also occur here. However, they are significantly stronger and unpredictable (unstable angina pectoris). This expression can not always be adjusted to the medication.

As a result, coronary heart disease leads to a reduced resilience of sufferers and causes a reduction in performance. Depending on the severity, this affects the quality of life. In individual cases, patients can no longer sufficiently fulfill everyday tasks.

At the same time, the clinical picture may continue to deteriorate and become a life-threatening stage of CHD. The so-called acute coronary syndrome is characterized by three manifestations :

  1. Unstable angina pectoris
  2. is characterized by a lack of elevations of the heart enzymes (creatine kinase MB, troponin) in the blood. ECG results show no changes that indicate a heart attack.
  3. Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI, acute myocardial infarction)
  4. shows no changes in the ECG, however, heart enzymes that point to possible heart disease and an infarction, detectable in the blood.
  5. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, acute myocardial infarction)
  6. manifests itself by typical changes in the ECG and detectable cardiac enzyme levels in the blood

As a consequence of these features occurs :

  • Heart failure due to a heart attack
  • Heart arrhythmia due to a myocardial scar or coronary circulatory disorders
  • Sudden cardiac death

Risk factors for the development of CHD

The training of CHD is favored by numerous risk factors. Women over the age of 55 and men over the age of 45 are at particular risk. The previous lifestyle plays a particularly important role here. Unhealthy, high-fat diet, lack of exercise and smoking increase the risk of diseases such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, lipid metabolism and glucose tolerance disorders. As a consequence of this, in turn, a CHD can arise.

Not to be ignored is the family disposition. Special caution is advised when cases of CHD to heart attack have already occurred in the family environment if possible risk factors should be largely avoided and a special focus on a healthy, balanced lifestyle should be laid. 

what-is-coronary-heart-disease

The diagnosis of CHD

Due to the risk factors for coronary heart disease described above, the diagnosis begins with an intensive discussion. Besides the risks, complaints are also documented. In addition, an assessment of the physical capacity of the patient.

This is followed by a physical check focusing on the legs, lungs, and heart. Possible signs of CHD include :

  • Cardiac malformations such as aortic valve stenosis
  • rattling breathing due to pulmonary congestion
  • heart failure

Weight, heart rate, blood pressure, and vascular status are also determined

Stents heart are small tubes that are suitable in arteries or ducts to keep them open when compromised. There are a variety of stents designed for various procedures and applications. Some of the procedures include the use of coronary, esophageal, ureteral and biliary stents. Most of them are made of stainless mesh and plastic steel; however, there are other stents that act as transplants and these are made from a special tissue. There are a number of common stents heart side effects that can occur and these could include clotting, calcification, bleeding, and pain.

There are two types of stent heart that are typically used: bare mesh stents and stents that have been coated with a drug. These are referred to as drug-eluting stents and are used to prevent the arteries from restarting. These devices are usually more effective and save lives; however, there are cases where patients experience negative results. Clinical studies using wire mesh stents in the cerebral arteries found that the stents caused strokes in patients. Stent Side Effects When performing procedures for coronary heart blockage can sometimes cause chest pain, swelling of the arms or legs, and bleeding from the puncture site on the groin.

Uretal stents placed to allow urine to travel unhindered from the kidney to the bladder, sometimes irritate the bladder and cause pain to the back and groin areas. They can be moved from the place and wandering in the bladder causing the patient to frequent urination and possibly cause blood to enter the urine. Physical activity can also cause the stent heart to move. Sometimes drug side effects can be lessened, and in most cases, they disappear when the stent is removed. Doctors recommend that patients with constant and severe pain or fever as a result of a stent should seek immediate medical attention.

stents-heart-side-effects

Patients with stents heart side effects of devices with medications sometimes present with blood clots, and in some cases allergic reactions to the stent itself coated. This is usually treated with medication; however, scarring at the site of the stent heart can be a common side effect. Medication-coated stents can also cause gastrointestinal bleeding, flu-like symptoms, chest pain, and strokes. Studies have shown that these symptoms and effects can also occur in nude mesh stents, yet appear to be more potent in medical devices. Although not as common, other stent side effects are lung disease and even cancer.

  • A stent heart is a supporting device introduced into the body.
  • While recovering from the surgery, patients need to be careful to sit upright while eating to ensure food goes through the stent.
  • Stents are used to keep blood vessels free of blockages.
  • Blood clotting, calcification, bleeding, and pain are among the possible side effects of using stents in coronary artery procedures.
  • Some stents heart side effects in the treatment of coronary blockages can cause chest pain.

Heart arrhythmia is a disorder characterized by an accelerated or severely slowed heartbeat. The change in heart rate is due to an increase or decrease in electrical activity in the heart muscle. Expansion of the heart is controlled by electrical signals or impulses from the brain. An interruption in the transmission of these electrical pulses may result in the suspension of a heartbeat. The values of a normal adult heartbeat are 60 to 100 beats per minute. If you have a heartbeat outside this area, talk to your doctor about it.

Arrhythmia is often a contraindication to sports.

When do you have to worry?

Benign arrhythmias manifest at the level of the atria (for example, atrial fibrillation) or the atrioventricular sinus. They do not lead to the death of the person. Malignant arrhythmias that can lead to death include tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation.

Causes of heart arrhythmia

Here are the main causes of irregular heartbeat and arrhythmias:

  • Coronary heart disease is a common cause of arrhythmia. It is a disorder in which the blood circulation in the coronary vessels is obstructed.
  • Stimulants such as smoking, alcohol abuse, drugs, and caffeine.
  • Abnormal sodium or potassium levels in the blood.
  • Some stomach disorders, such as a hiatus hernia or gastroesophageal reflux.
  • Stimulants in medicines for a cough and cold.
  • They can occur during convalescence after heart surgery.
  • Hypertension or high blood pressure.
  • Thyroid dysfunction or hyperthyroidism are less common causes of arrhythmias.
  • Myocardial damage or fibrosis of the heart due to myocardial infarction.
  • Diabetes and insulin.

Symptoms of heart arrhythmia

The symptoms of an irregular heartbeat are very vague. Sometimes the patient does not feel it at all. Patients with serious arrhythmias may have few symptoms, while others with significant symptoms may present a less severe condition.

Symptoms include:

  1. Intermittent chest pain or angina, the most common symptom of an irregular heartbeat
  2. Fast and irregular frequency, strong tapping of the heart
  3. Fainting or syncope
  4. Difficult breathing, especially under stress
  5. Excessive sweating
  6. Fear and restlessness
  7. General malaise
  8. Dizziness or dizziness
  9. Fatigue

Asymptomatic arrhythmia

The asymptomatic arrhythmia is not always harmless and may cause blood clotting in the heart and / or a reduction in the amount of blood being pumped.

Heart Arrhythmia At Night

Nocturnal irregular heartbeat can have various causes. The most common are :

  • Diabetes
  • Hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism)
  • high blood pressure or hypertension
  • Other heart diseases
  • Some medicines
  • Smoke
  • Stressful situations
  • Some natural remedies

Arrhythmia after eating

When we eat, a large amount of blood is diverted to the digestive tract. The body immediately responds to this situation and tries to maintain normal blood pressure by increasing the heart rate and narrowing certain arteries. If this mechanism does not work, postprandial hypotension may occur (drop in blood pressure after eating). Older people may have arrhythmias after eating. People who may experience cardiac arrhythmias after meals include those with high arterial blood pressure or Parkinson’s disease.

Causes and symptoms of the disorder can vary from person to person, possibilities are:

  1. Some people suffer from tachycardia only in certain situations, for example, at night in bed, after eating sweet foods or foods with a high sodium content, etc.
  2. Inadequate water intake, which thickens the blood and thus forces the heart to work to pump the blood.
  3. Dysfunction of an endocrine gland.
  4. Problems of the digestive system.
  5. Excessive enjoyment of coffee and other stimulants.
  6. Disorders of the vagus nerve.
  7. Hiatus hernia (diaphragmatic hernia).
  8. Gastroesophageal reflux.
  9. Liver or kidney disease.
  10. People with a rapid resting heartbeat may have arrhythmias after eating.

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Atrial Fibrillation (AF)

Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of arrhythmia. In this disease, the heart beats irregularly and too fast. AF can be chronic, persistent or paroxysmal. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurs occasionally and temporarily, and is short-lived, from a few seconds to a few days.

Ventricular arrhythmia

This is a heart disorder in which the irregular rhythm of the heart and heartbeats come from the heart chambers. It can be divided into: ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bradycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Tachycardia means that the heart rate exceeds 100 beats per minute, while bradycardia is characterized by beats below 60 beats per minute. Ventricular fibrillation is a disease in which the heart beats quickly and irregularly. The result is a reduction of the pumped blood.

causes

  1. Drug side effects
  2. caffeine
  3. nicotine
  4. High sodium and potassium levels in the blood
  5. Necroses and fibroses of the heart muscle
  6. cardiomyopathy
  7. myocarditis
  8. Valvular heart disease
  9. Congenital heart disease

Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA)

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia refers to a change in heart rate that occurs during a natural breathing cycle. The vagus nerve is a cranial nerve that runs from the brain stem to the abdomen and plays an important role in the regulation of the heartbeat. It reduces the contraction force and the frequency of the heart. During inhalation and exhalation, cells of the medulla oblongata send a signal from the parasympathetic nervous system via this cranial nerve to the heart. This causes a cyclic variation of the heart rate. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is a physiological variant and is not considered abnormal. In fact, it is the loss of this normal reflex that signals a heart problem.

RSA is common in children and adolescents and usually goes away with self-growth. However, a doctor should be consulted on:

  1. Very fast and irregular heartbeat,
  2. Very slow heartbeat, 

Heart Arrhythmia in Children

What are the specific causes of heart arrhythmia in children?

  1. Congenital heart defect
  2. Side effect on medicines

Cardiac palpitations during pregnancy

What are the causes?

  1. Mental stress
  2. body changes
  3. Excessive caffeine consumption
  4. Physical stress
  5. anemia
  6. Lack of magnesium
  7. Side effects of drugs

Diagnostics and examination

Heart arrhythmia are diagnosed by listening to the stethoscope or by an electrocardiogram (ECG). For fetal arrhythmias, echocardiography is usually performed; in the 20th week of pregnancy usually a morphological ultrasound. If the gynecologist sees a congenital anomaly, he may request  chocardiography, as this examination is much more thorough.

Therapy of heart arrhythmia

In some arrhythmias, it does not require treatment, in other cases, rapid treatment must be used to prevent heart failure.

Possible treatments are:

Physical exercises

There are several physical exercises (physiokinesis therapy) that stimulate the stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system (the part of the nervous system that affects rest, digestion, energy recovery and recovery).

The techniques that affect the vagus nerve (vagal maneuvers) affect the parasympathetic nervous system and promote the health of the heart.

With regard to nutrition, stimulating foods, such as coffee and chocolate, are not recommended as they can affect the heart rate.

Treatment of the accelerated heartbeat

Cardioversion. If the tachycardia

About two out of three people survive a heart attack. For these patients, it is very important to avoid a second infarction because the chances of survival in a repeated infarction are significantly lower. Certain risk factors such as genetic predisposition, age or gender can not be changed – but there are a number of other factors that you can influence yourself to reduce the risk of a second heart attack.

Avoid Second Infarction: First Step is a Cure

Overall, about one third of heart attack patients suffer another infarction. The prognosis of a heart attack depends firstly on how badly the heart was damaged, but also on the behavior and lifestyle of those affected. The first important step after a cardiac arrest has passed is a cure for many patients – a so-called follow-up treatment. This type of rehabilitation should be followed directly by the hospital stay and usually takes three weeks. Studies show that rehabilitation improves the prognosis after a heart attack. In the follow-up treatment, which can also be performed on an outpatient basis, not only the medical treatment is continued and the physical performance is rebuilt, the patient is also informed about risk factors and educated on how he needs to change his lifestyle. Since this is often associated with the task of decades of habits, this is particularly difficult for many heart attack patients.

Take Medication Regularly and Stop Smoking

The most important factors to avoid a second heart attack include regular use of prescribed medications and abstinence from smoking. Only a consistent therapy can prevent a second heart attack. However, studies show that patient adherence diminishes approximately one year after the infarction. Five years after the infarct, only a part of the therapy continues consistently.

A second major contributing factor to the onset of another heart attack is smoking.

How-to-avoid-heart-attack

Healthy Lifestyle: Heart Sports, Nutrition and Relaxation

But even those who give up smoking and taking his medication regularly should also pay attention to a healthy lifestyle. This includes :

Regular exercise and moderate exercise are healthy for the heart – even after a heart attack. A good start after rehabilitation is offered by so-called heart sports groups, where you can train with other people under medical supervision. But regular exercise in everyday life is important, such as walking, cycling or gardening. In addition, heart sports can also boost confidence in one’s own body, which can help to reduce existing fears.

Overweight, high blood lipid levels and diabetes are risk factors for a heart attack that can be positively influenced by a healthy diet. Recommended for heart attack patients the so-called Mediterranean diet: This contains little meat and (animal) fat, but plenty of fruit and vegetables, regularly fish and in unsaturated fatty acids, such as those contained in olive and rapeseed oil.

Avoiding stress is also essential for heart attack patients if they want to avoid another heart attack. Researchers have shown that chronic stress can clog the arteries. In addition, stress can increase blood pressure, which also increases the risk of another heart attack. Heart attack patients should, therefore, look at how they can reduce stress in everyday life. It can also be helpful to learn certain techniques in stress management, such as autogenic training, progressive muscle relaxation, yoga or meditation.

One name – various tumors. Lung cancer is not the same as lung cancer. Under this generalized name, different forms of treatment are hidden in treatment and therapy. Lung cancer is a malignant tissue proliferation in the lungs, mainly from the mucous membranes of the bronchi. The medical term bronchial carcinoma hides numerous tumors with different cell types and therefore different forms of therapy and prognosis.

In the case of bronchial carcinoma, a distinction is made between small cell and non-small cell tumors

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes squamous cell carcinoma, which accounts for half of all lung cancers. The tumor cells do not grow as fast as e.g. in small cell bronchial carcinoma. It can usually be operated on well because it is predominantly located centrally in the lungs and more distinct than the small cell lung cancer. Also, the cancer cells grow less quickly, but also do not respond so well to a chemo or radiation therapy.

Adenocarcinoma also belongs to the group of non-small cell lung carcinomas. It has some special status, as it occurs mainly in non-smoking middle-aged women. Otherwise, it can be said that about every tenth cell-type lung cancer is an adenocarcinoma.

The third representative of this group is the rarely occurring large-cell bronchial carcinoma, which accounts for five to ten percent of all malignant lung tumors. All three tumor types grow more slowly compared to small cell bronchial carcinoma and do not form metastases (secondary tumors) as quickly.

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is also referred to as oat cell cancer because the tumor cells are very similar to oat grains. This type of lung cancer is extremely fast and invasive and early causes metastases in the lymph nodes, liver, kidneys, brain and skeletal system (predominantly spine). As a form of treatment, a chemotherapy or radiation therapy is available here, under which the tumor size can greatly reduce or reduce due to the cell specificity. Surgery is performed if the cancer is found only in one lung and near lymph nodes. However, as this type of cancer does not usually occur in just one area, surgery as a single treatment is not useful. Often there are also recurrences.

Small cell bronchial carcinomas also have as a special feature the formation of a paraneoplastic syndrome. The tumor cells produce hormone-like substances that can lead to a variety of endocrinological symptoms. Since 80% of all patients already have metastasis at the time of the first diagnosis, this tumor has the worst prognosis.

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Special shapes :

  • Pancoast tumor

The tumor sits at a certain point in the lung tip and has just through this situation a typical symptom. The most common symptoms here are unilateral shoulder pain radiating to the arm, ribs, neck, and back. This symptomatology is due to the ingrowth of the tumor into surrounding nerve tracts. Often a Horner syndrome also occurs. Horner’s syndrome is the combination of the drooping eyelid, narrowing of the pupil, withdrawal of the eyeball and reversed perspiration on one side. As a therapy, a combined chemo and radiation therapy followed by surgery is recommended if the condition of the patient allows it and there are no metastases in adjacent lymph nodes or other organs.

  • pleural mesothelioma

This rather rare malignant tumor starts from the pleura, which covers the lungs. Although it can greatly affect the function of the lungs and lead to severe breathing difficulties, it does not formally belong to the group of different types of lung cancer. Causes of the pleural mesothelioma are mostly asbestos contacts. Asbestos is the most important risk factor for this type of cancer. Since 1977, pleural mesothelioma has been recognized as an occupational disease in recent occupational asbestos exposure. It grows quite slowly compared to other tumors. Decades may pass between the inhalation of asbestos-containing dust and the manifestation of a pleural mesothelioma.

In the end, however, it destroys and displaces other organs such as the lungs, heart, and diaphragm and forms metastases. It also comes very often to a pleural effusion. This is an accumulation of often purulent, often bloody fluid in the chest. In the treatment of pleural mesothelioma, the affected tissues are removed and replaced if necessary by artificial sculptures. Accompanying radiation and/or chemotherapy can be used.

Congenital heart disease is a heart defect, of innate origin. Basically, this pathology concerns the septa of the heart, affects the artery, which supplies venous blood to the lungs or one of the main vessels of the arterial system – the aorta, and also There is an increase in the botallov channel (OAP). In congenital heart disease, the blood movement in the large blood circulation (BPC) and small (ICC) is disturbed.

Heart defects are a term that combines certain heart diseases whose main benefit is a change in the anatomical structure of the heart valve device or its largest vessels and the growth of the partitions between the atria or ventricles.

Causes of congenital heart disease

The main causes of congenital heart disease are diseases from the chromosomes – it is almost 5%; Mutation of the gene (2-3%); various factors such as alcoholism and drug addiction of parents; Infectious diseases in the first trimester of pregnancy (rubella, hepatitis), medications (1-2%) and hereditary predisposition (90%).

With various distortions of chromosomes, their mutations appear in a quantitative and structural form. When aberrations of large or medium-sized chromosomes occur, this generally leads to a lethal outcome. But if there are biases in life compatibility then there are several types of congenital diseases. When a third chromosome appears in the set of chromosomes, defects arise between the valves of the valves of the atrial and ventricular septa or a combination of these.

Congenital heart disease with changes in the sex chromosomes is much rarer than in trisomy autosomes.

Mutations of a gene not only lead to congenital heart disease, but also to abnormalities of other organs. Developmental disorders of the CVS (cardiovascular system) are associated with the syndrome of autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive syndrome. These syndromes are characterized by a pattern of damage to the system in a mild or severe severity.

The development of congenital heart disease can contribute to various environmental factors that damage the cardiovascular system. Among them, X-ray radiation could be identified that a woman could receive during the first half of pregnancy; Radiation by ionized particles; some types of medicines; Infectious diseases and viral infections; Alcohol, drugs, etc. Therefore, heart disease formed under the influence of these factors has received the name of embryopathy.

Under the influence of alcohol, most commonly formed VSD (defect of the interventricular septum), OAP (open arterial duct), pathology of the interatrial septum. For example, anticonvulsants lead to the development of pulmonary artery stenosis and aorta, aortic coarctation, OAP.

Ethyl alcohol is the first of the toxic substances, contributing to congenital heart disease. A child born under the influence of alcohol has an embryophytic alcohol syndrome. Alcoholic mothers suffer from almost 40% of children with congenital heart disease. Alcohol is particularly dangerous in the first trimester of pregnancy – this is one of the most critical stages of fetal development.

Very dangerous for the future of the child is the fact that the pregnant woman suffered from rubella. This disease causes a number of pathologies. And the innate pathology of the heart is no exception. The incidence of congenital heart disease after rubella is between 1 and 2.4%. Among the heart diseases are the most common in practice: OAA, AVK, Fallot tetralogy, DMZHP, stenosis of the pulmonary artery.

The data from the experiments show that almost all congenital heart defects are basically of genetic origin, which is consistent with a multifactorial inheritance. Of course, there is heterozygosity of a genetic nature and some forms of UPU are associated with mutations of a gene.

In addition to the aetiological factors that cause congenital heart disease, there is also a risk group in which women fall into the age group; Have violations of the endocrine system; with toxicoses of the first three months of pregnancy; who have stillborn babies in the history, as well as already existing children with congenital heart defects.

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Congenital heart disease symptoms

The clinical picture of congenital heart disease is characterized by features of the structure of the defect, the recovery process and the complications resulting from a variety of etiologies. The symptoms of congenital heart disease include shortness of breath, which occurs in the context of low physical exertion, increased heart rate, periodic weakness, paleness or cyanosis of the face, pain in the heart, swelling and fainting.

Congenital heart defects can occur at regular intervals, so there are three major phases.

In the primary, adaptive phase, the patient’s body attempts to adapt to circulatory system disorders caused by a developmental defect. As a result, the symptoms of manifestation of the disease are usually not very pronounced. But during a severe hemodynamic injury, cardiac decompensation quickly develops. If patients with congenital heart disease do not die during

Cancer therapies serve the purpose of curing the patient of the disease (“curative” = healing therapy) or to stop the further growth and spread of the tumor as long as possible, to relieve discomfort and to prolong the lifetime (“palliative” = alleviative) Therapy). An indispensable component of oncological care is the so-called “supportive therapy” (supportive therapy). It treats and prevents complications of cancer and survival-related but often aggressive cancer therapies.

How is lung cancer operated?

If the tumor has not exceeded a certain size and has not yet formed distant metastases, surgery is sought with the aim of completely removing the tumor tissue and the lymph nodes affected by tumor cells. The operation plays an important role especially in non-small cell lung cancer – as small cell lung cancer is often diagnosed at a later stage, then other treatments are in the foreground.

The surgical procedure is preceded by extensive research. In particular, it must be ensured that after the removal of part of the lung, the remaining lung sections are able to sufficiently take over the respiratory function. The condition for the operation is a good general condition of the patient; Severe comorbidities often rule out surgery. Furthermore, removal of the tumor should not pose a risk to neighboring vital organs such as large blood vessels or the esophagus. If the expected burdens and restrictions are too great, a different therapy strategy must be chosen.

During surgery, the tumor-bearing lung section and the adjacent lymph nodes are removed. The most common procedure is the removal of a lung lobe (lobectomy). With very large tumors the removal of an entire lung wing may be necessary (pneumectomy). In many cases, however, it is possible to avoid the removal of the entire lung through special, organ-preserving surgical techniques.

Possible side effects:

As a result of the operation, the available breathing area of the patient is reduced. However, if the lung function before surgery is sufficient, it will not be a major problem for the patient, and he will usually be able to compensate well for the loss of lung tissue. Special breathing exercises in rehabilitation also help to improve lung performance after tumor therapy. The first exercises can already be learned in the clinic under the guidance of a physiotherapist and later be continued at home. For smokers, however, they should stop smoking immediately before the operation to improve their lung function.

What happens during an irradiation?

Radiation therapy is the only therapy for non-small cell lung cancer in stages I and II when surgery is not possible and for selected patients in stage III. Otherwise, it is usually combined with chemotherapy in patients with stage III and small cell lung cancer. If cancer has secondary tumors, called metastases, in other organs such as the brain or the bones, they may also be irradiated.

The high-energy ionizing radiation, which is directed from the outside to the tumor, destroys the cancer cells. The total radiation dose is divided into several single doses, which are administered about five times a week. In the so-called hyperfractionated radiation, which can be used in lung cancer, is even twice a day at intervals of several hours, but then irradiated with lower single doses.

In addition to conventional radiotherapy, the so-called stereotactic radiotherapy is also used. Here, the disease is in a few sessions, sometimes in only one, irradiated with a high dose of radiation. This is possible because the beams are directed to the target area from different directions after computer-controlled irradiation planning. There, all the rays meet at one point and add up to the total dose, which is thus maximum at the site of the disease, while the surrounding healthy tissue is largely spared. For this reason, stereotactic radiotherapy is particularly well suited for small tumors and tumors in delicate environments, such as brain metastases.

Possible Side Effects:

Side effects of radiotherapy may be hoarseness and difficulty swallowing. The skin is also sensitive to the treatment. In combination with chemotherapy in particular, mucous membrane inflammation and fungal infections can occur in the oral cavity. A late consequence is a pneumonitis, an inflammation of the irradiated lung tissue. Overall, the severity of side effects depends on the type and intensity of the radiation used.

How does the chemotherapy work?

Chemotherapy uses cell-growth-inhibiting drugs known as cytostatics. They act primarily against fast-growing cells and thus especially against cancer cells. For the treatment of lung cancer several chemotherapeutic drugs are available, which are selected according to individual requirements.

Which medicines are used depends on various factors, including the stage of the disease, the general condition, and concomitant diseases. Usually, two or three substances are combined, with cisplatin or carboplatin as the basic drug in most cases. Commonly used cytostatic drugs in non-small cell