Irritant Contact Dermatitis Journal

Safety and efficacy of topical calcineurin inhibitors in the treatment of childhood atopic dermatitis. American Journal of Clinical Dermatology….Allergo Journal International. Allergo J Int. … The likelihood of developing irritant contact dermatitis rises with the intensity and duration of exposure to the irritant. Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is an inflammation of skin caused by direct cytotoxic effects of chemical, physical or biological agents on epidermal cells …Irritant contact dermatitis cases reached 85% in the workplace. This is caused by direct exposure to chemicals, lack of attention to hygiene, sanitation and the lack​ …

Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD) is still a occupational health problem. … occupational irritan contact dermatitis, working period, history of disease, personal … Journal of Dermatology & Dermatologic Surgery..Background: Allergic contact dermatitis is a type of contact dermatitis, whose prevalence tends to increase every year. Patch test is an important diagnostic test to …Irritant contact dermatitis is a result of activated innate immune response to various external stimuli and consists of complex interplay which involves skin barrier …Bioscientia Medicina: Journal of Biomedicine & Translational Research. Prevention of … Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is an inflammatory epidermal disorder.

irritant contact dermatitis journal

ICD can co-exist with atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Patients with AD and ACD may have a lower inflammatory …Patch tests are the gold standard for diagnosing allergic contact dermatitis.27 Irritant contact dermatitis is usually a diagnosis of exclusion when …Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is the most common form of contact dermatitis. … The diagnosis of irritant contact dermatitis is often clinical and involves a comprehensive history and examination, as well as the exclusion of … Journal and Issue. Acute irritant contact dermatitis – often the result of a single … Journal Compilation Ó 2009 British Association of Dermatologists • British Journal ..Dermatitis of surrounding skin may complicate hard-to-heal leg ulcers, delaying wound healing. The coexistence of hard-to-heal leg ulcers and irritant or allergic contact dermatitis may… … Journal of Wound Care …

Contact Dermatitis Irritant and Allergic

Dermatitis is the medical term for skin inflammation (irritation). Contact dermatitis is an allergic or irritant reaction that causes painful or itchy skin …
‎Symptoms and Causes · ‎Diagnosis and Tests · ‎Management and Treatment. The irritant CD is a nonspecific skin response to direct chemical skin damage and/​with releasing inflammatory mediators, while allergic CD is a delayed hypersensitivity …Irritant contact dermatitis, which accounts for 80% of all contact dermatitis, doesn’t involve an allergic reaction by the immune system. · Allergic contact dermatitis is​ …The substance could be one of the thousands of known allergens and irritants. Some of these substances may cause irritant contact dermatitis …Read about contact dermatitis, a type of eczema that causes inflammation of the … usually occurs within a few hours or days of exposure to an irritant or allergen. Contact dermatitis is a skin rash or irritation caused by touching something. It could be an allergic reaction or skin damage.

contact dermatitis irritant and allergic

The transition metal nickel is a very common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (​ACD). In the general population, adults with hand eczema have a high incidence​ …CD results from contact with environmental substances that elicit an allergic and​/or irritant response. High clinical suspicion of allergic contact dermatitis …
of drugs, also increases penetration of other chemicals and antigens, and hence may exacerbate irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Th…Another difference is that allergic dermatitis can occur in other places on the body that did not come in contact with the allergy-causing material. How does irritant …
Contact dermatitis is inflammation of the skin caused by direct contact with irritants (irritant contact dermatitis) or allergens (allergic contact dermatitis). Symptoms …Irritants and allergies cause contact dermatitis. Irritant contact dermatitis is a skin reaction from irritation to something touching your skin, including Chemicals …There are two main types of work-related contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Irritant contact dermatitis. An …The substances may be Irritants. These cause direct skin irritation and inflammation. They are the most common cause of contact dermatitis. Allergens. These … With irritant dermatitis, the symptoms are usually limited to the skin that made direct contact with the irritant, whereas allergic contact dermatitis …

Irritant Contact Dermatitis Treatment

What is the treatment of contact irritant dermatitis? · Emollient creams · Topical steroids · Antibiotics for secondary infection (usually flucloxacillin or erythromycin​). The definitive treatment of irritant contact dermatitis is the identification and removal of any potential causal agents. For hand irritant contact … Irritant contact dermatitis is a frequent problem in healthcare workers, owing to frequent hand washing. The best antimicrobial efficacy can be …To treat contact dermatitis successfully, you need to identify and avoid the cause of your reaction. If you can avoid the offending substance, the …Treatment · Cyclosporine is currently the drug of the first choice in the treatment of severe, therapy-resistant atopic dermatitis in adults, an indication

irritant contact dermatitis treatment

Treatment / Management — Chronic phase: Lichenification. Hands are the common site of contact allergic dermatitis. No pathognomonic clinical …
Further treatments · phototherapy – where the affected area of skin is exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light to help improve its appearance · immunosuppressant therapy …Localized acute allergic contact dermatitis lesions are successfully treated with mid- or high-potency topical steroids, such as triamcinolone 0.1% …Read about contact dermatitis, a type of eczema that causes inflammation of the skin … See a GP if you have persistent, recurrent or severe symptoms of contact dermatitis. … an irritant – a substance that directly damages the outer layer of skin​ …Patients typically present complaining of a burning or stinging early in the course of irritant contact dermatitis. · As the irritation becomes chronic and the skin …Treatment · applying anti-itch ointments to the infected skin · taking an oatmeal bath (or similar) · taking antihistamine drugs · avoiding scratching the infected area to …Treatment includes removal of the offending substance, cool compresses, potential glucocorticoids ( clobetasol cream or ointment or triamcinalone 0.1% cream or …
Acute irritant dermatitis: Acute onset often after …
Traumatic irritant dermatitis: Slowly developing …
Delayed acute irritant dermatitis: Delayed onset, …
Irritation reaction: Acute, often multiple exposure…



Contact Allergy

Skin irritation, rashes, and itching can be signs of skin or contact allergy. If those affected come into contact with the decisive allergen, the skin usually reacts within a few minutes. An allergy test by the doctor can confirm the suspected diagnosis and determine appropriate therapy. A contact allergy is caused by the contact of an allergenic stimulus (allergen) with the skin. Allergic contact dermatitis, another name for contact allergy, is caused by substances that come into direct contact with the skin. Contact allergies also include sun allergies. The allergic reaction (hypersensitivity) of the skin can also manifest itself as hives (urticaria).


The symptoms of contact allergy show up at the point where the allergenic substance has acted, but can later “spread”. The hands are most often affected, but other parts of the body (feet, face, skin under the bra or button) can also be affected. The skin irritation leads to redness, blistering, oozing, and crusting. These symptoms of contact allergy are mostly associated with itching. If the contact eczema persists for a long time, the skin flakes and thickens. Allergic eczema usually occurs within minutes, less often in 1 to 4 days after contact with the triggering substance. An allergy test can be used to find out which substances the body is allergic to.

Symptoms Of Chronic Contact Allergy

Chronic skin changes can be observed if contact allergies repeatedly occur in the same area over the years. The skin becomes coarser (lichenification) and excessively cornified (hyperkeratosis). In addition, cracks (fissures) – sometimes deep – develop in the skin.


As with allergies as a whole, the exact causes of contact allergies have not been unequivocally researched. The course of the allergic reaction, however, does. A detailed description can be found under Allergies. In a nutshell: In the case of an allergic reaction, the body’s own defense system, the immune system, overshoots its target. It fights supposed “enemies” and thereby triggers allergic symptoms. In the case of contact allergy, the immune system reacts to stimuli that act on the skin. Stimuli or substances that often trigger a contact allergy are:

    • Metals such as nickel or chrome (trouser buttons, belt buckles, jewelry)
    • Leather, rubber
    • externally applied drugs, e.g. B. Ointments containing antibiotics
    • Detergents and cleaning agents
    • cosmetics
    • Colorings and preservatives
    • plants


If the symptoms of a contact allergy appear in the mouth and face area or in the lining of the throat or larynx, you should consult a doctor. Likewise, breathing difficulties, severe diarrhea, or a disturbed general condition with fever, nausea, or dizziness accompany the allergic reaction. It is also useful to see a doctor if contact eczema does not improve or if you do not know the cause of a persistent rash. The doctor may do an allergy test to confirm the suspected diagnosis. Once the allergen has been identified, treatment can begin.

Contact Allergy


So-called antihistamines are mainly used in the drug treatment of contact allergies. These are active ingredients such as azelastine, loratadine, levocabastine, clemastine, or cetirizine. Antihistamines inhibit the activity of histamine. This in turn is a messenger substance that significantly influences the allergic reaction. Severe cases of contact eczema are treated with cortisone. Depending on the location and severity of the contact dermatitis, the medication is administered as a plaster, ointment, or tablet.

Self-Help With Contact Allergy

The most effective form of self-help with contact allergy is to avoid contact with allergens. So if you are allergic to costume jewelry with nickel, it is better not to wear it anymore – not even for once. Or if you have an allergy to preservatives, you can use make-up from the health food store or pharmacy.

You can get ointments and tablets with the antihistamines already mentioned against the itching of contact allergies without a prescription in the pharmacy.


The first piece of advice for preventing contact allergies is: Avoid allergens! The following tips will help:

    • Wash new clothes before wearing them for the first time.
    • Avoid using cosmetics or perfumes when sunbathing (exception: sunscreen).
    • When working with chemicals (e.g. cleaning agents, paints), it is best to wear PVC gloves and cotton gloves underneath.
    • Do not wear costume jewelry with nickel or chrome on your skin.
    • Use allergy-tested skin cleansers and cosmetics.
    • Care for endangered skin areas with ointments or creams.

Bipolar Personality Disorder Test

People with bipolar disorder experience intense mood changes that can last for weeks or more. Use this bipolar disorder test to find out if your symptoms mean …This test assumes that you have already had at least one episode of depression in your life, and will give an indication as to whether you are experiencing the most …Your life doesn’t have to be this way. Find out if you are just having a tough time or may have a depressive disorder, which is a treatable medical condition. Take …Signs of Bipolar Disorder · High levels of energy · Excessive, rapid, and sometimes incoherent speaking · Grandiosity and an increased sense of self-esteem …The bipolar disorder self-test asks a few questions to determine the possibility of bipolar disorder. Please note, results are not a diagnosis. What’s the screening test for bipolar disorder like? … Current screening tests for bipolar disorder don’t perform well. The most common report is the Mood Disorder …
Bipolar Depression Test. 5 minutes. Feel as though you’re on an emotional roller coaster? Take this quiz to find out whether Bipolar Depression may be …This 12-question bipolar quiz is confidential and uses criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders to help you …

Bipolar Personality Disorder Test

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Types of Bipolar Disorder Test

Our online bipolar test is free, quick, confidential, and scientifically validated. … any of your blood relatives had manic-depressive illness or bipolar disorder?
Find out if you are just having a tough time or may have a depressive disorder, which is a treatable medical condition. Take the Depression and Bipolar Test and​ …
Types and symptoms — Current screening tests for bipolar disorder don’t perform well. The most common report is the Mood Disorder Questionnaire
This test assumes that you have already had at least one episode of depression in your life, and will give an indication as to whether you are experiencing the most …

types of bipolar disorder test

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Bipolar Affective Disorder Treatment Guidelines

American Psychiatric Association Treatment of patients with bipolar disorder (​2002) Guideline Watch (2005) British Association for Psychopharmacology.
history of mania or hypomania, the psychiatrist should refer to the APA Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Major Depressive Disorder (2).
The guidelines cover the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, clinical management, and strategies for the use of medicines in the short-term treatment of episodes, relapse …Clinical practice recommendations . … Pharmacological interventions for acute episodes of bipolar depression that could not be included in the network …

bipolar affective disorder treatment guidelines

Bipolar disorders are characterized by alternating episodes of mania or hypomania and depression or mixtures of manic and depressive features. Bipolar …
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic, disabling, and heterogeneous condition of major relevance, whose treatment needs to be considered separately through the​ …
Guidance on the clinical management of depressive and bipolar disorders, specifically focusing on diagnosis and treatment strategies.

Bipolar Affective Disorder Symptoms

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Bipolar disorder causes shifts in a person’s mood and energy levels. It is usually manageable with a correct diagnosis and suitable treatment and support.
These mood episodes are categorized as manic/hypomanic (abnormally happy or irritable mood) or depressive (sad mood). People with bipolar disorder generally …
Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions called depressive disorders that affect the way a person’s brain functions. Find out more about bipolar …

bipolar affective disorder symptoms

Is it ok to stop medications when the symptoms get better? — Bipolar disorder is a severe mental illness which runs a chronic nature and relapsing …
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Bipolar Affective Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a mental illness and is one of the affect disorders. Hence, it is also known as bipolar affective disorder (BAS). Bipolar disorders are characterized by extreme mood swings that can hardly be controlled at will. Longer-lasting depressive phases usually alternate with shorter euphoric and/or aggressive states. In particularly severe attacks, the manic phases can lead to psychosis with delusions such as megalomania or paranoia.


Bipolar disorder is one of the rare affect disorders. The probability of a disease in the course of life (lifetime prevalence) is a maximum of 3 percent. Men and women are equally often affected. The frequency peak is in young adults between 18 and 25 years of age. Bipolar disorders are more often associated with other mental illnesses such as anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The incidence is also significantly higher in addicts and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).


Characteristic symptoms of bipolar disorder are strong mood swings that go far beyond the normal range and beyond that cannot be controlled by those affected.

Psychologists and neurologists distinguish between two main patterns. In the so-called bipolar I disorder, those affected experience extremely strong manic and depressive phases. In bipolar II disorder, the mood swings are much less pronounced. This is especially true in the manic phase. Doctors also speak of hypomania here.

Bipolar Affective Disorder

Symptoms Of Hypomania

A hypomanic episode of bipolar disorder usually lasts for about 4 days. Above all, it is characterized by an exceptionally high mood, which is not infrequently accompanied by increased irritability. Hypomania can resemble a healthy high mood. Hence there are other criteria for diagnosis. Accordingly, a hypomanic phase can be assumed if at least 3 of the following symptoms apply:

    • increased activity and restlessness
    • increased performance
    • unusual wealth of ideas
    • Conversation (torrent of speech, monologues)
    • Difficulty concentrating
    • decreased need for sleep
    • increased libido
    • reckless behavior
    • unusual sociability

Symptoms of the manic phase

In a manic episode, the symptoms are significantly more severe. Euphoria and restlessness know no bounds. Those affected are often barely recognizable to family members or friends. In pronounced phases, manic people know no limits and sometimes lose all risk control. This leads to reckless behavior, even without any self-protection. In a manic phase, people sometimes jump off bridges, knowing that they can fly – or that they are invulnerable.

Symptoms of the depressive phase

After about 7 to 10 days of the manic episode, a normal state often occurs for a short time. Moods and feelings can be influenced again and can be controlled normally. Sometime later, people with bipolar disorder lapse into a depression that usually lasts for weeks or months. Symptoms of the depressive phase are, for example, extremely sad mood, greatly reduced interest in family, friends, and acquaintances, weight loss or weight gain, increased need for sleep (sometimes throughout the day), extreme exhaustion and lack of energy, and recurring suicidal thoughts.


The causes of bipolar disorder have not yet been clarified. Presumably, there is a hereditary component. But that is not clearly proven either. It is noticeable that bipolar disorders are often associated with other mental illnesses. These include anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and addictions (especially illegal drugs and alcohol).


    • Bipolar disorder is usually treated with a combination of psychotherapy and drug therapy.
    • Drug therapy for bipolar disorders

Antidepressants such as imipramine, clomipramine, or amitriptyline are sometimes used to lift mood and improve drive during periods of depression. However, there is a risk that those affected will slide into a manic phase more quickly. In the case of bipolar disorders, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have proven to be more effective in the depressive phase. These include citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline, among others.

In acute manic phases, it may be necessary to suppress the mania with mood modulators from the group of typical neuroleptics such as haloperidol and loxapine. Medicines from the group of atypical neuroleptics such as risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone are another alternative.

However, this form of drug therapy is usually only used in the acute phase, when those affected are forcibly committed to inpatient accommodation because of behavior that is harmful to themselves or others.

Many sufferers benefit from oral lithium in the prevention of acute attacks. However, it often takes a while to find the right dosage for the individual. In addition, adherence to therapy must be strong. Irregularities in the intake quickly lead to a new episode. Other live prophylactic drugs are carbamazepine, valproic acid, and lamotrigine.

Psychotherapy for bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder responds well to psychotherapeutic treatment. The prerequisite for this, however, is that those affected are ready for therapy at all. In addition, a framework must be created that is conducive to the psychological stability of those affected. At least at the beginning of psychotherapy, this is usually only possible in a specialized clinic. After a successful inpatient start, the therapy must be continued on an outpatient basis. In most cases, stable freedom from symptoms is only achieved after a longer treatment period of around 2 years.

Carbohydrates: Fast Energy For Athletes

Endurance athletes are almost dependent on a good energy supply during the competition in order to maintain their performance until the end.

During a marathon or a bike race, carbohydrates are therefore consumed in the form of drinks, bars, gel, or fruit. But when is which product the fastest source of energy for the body?

High Carbohydrate Bars

Carbohydrate-rich bars have been very popular for a long time; they are available in a variety of flavors and provide compressed energy. In order to be able to use the energy from this optimally, the athlete should also consume enough liquid so that the ingredients of the bar can be used quickly. The combination of bar and drink is usually easier for the cyclist, as he can transport everything he needs on his bike, whereas in running sports something is often only picked up at supply stations. It is precisely for this reason that these phases must be used optimally here. A sufficient and constant supply of fluids is also one of the basic requirements for continuous performance.

Fast Energy For Athletes

Energy Gel

An alternative to the bar is the gel. Here an energy gel from the pack is pressed or sucked directly into the mouth and can be consumed without chewing. Because of this, it may be a better choice for some runners. But even with the gel, liquid is necessary for optimal absorption of the ingredients.

Carbohydrates are also available in the form of drinks. These carbohydrate-rich fitness drinks provide energy and fluids in a variety of flavors at the same time. However, only a very low concentration can be achieved here in order to ensure a good absorption of the ingredients. Which is why these power drinks are not necessarily sufficient for a marathon for many runners. On the other hand, they are ideal for training units and sports in the gym.

Food Rich In Carbohydrates

The athlete can also choose from a large number of good carbohydrate suppliers from nature and “normal” food. For example, pasta and rice are very good carbohydrates for the body. However, they take some time to digest, which is why it is not advisable to consume them immediately before training or competition. Many cyclists, especially the professionals, therefore eat a large amount of pasta or rice hours before the start, so that the meal usually has already left the stomach by the time they start.


Fruits, especially bananas, are also good sources of energy during competitions. They are soft and can therefore be easily consumed and digested. But here too, too much of it burdens the stomach, so the athlete should try out beforehand how much is good for him.