Food Allergy

Food allergies are sometimes confused with food intolerances. The main difference: In a food allergy, the immune system fights parts of the food as foreign bodies. More about it as well as symptoms, causes, and therapy of a food allergy. Around 1 to 2 percent of the population suffers from a real food allergy. In these cases, the immune system is allergic to certain foods. An allergy is a bad reaction of the immune system to actually harmless, foreign substances.

A reaction does not appear until the second contact with the triggering substance (allergen) at the earliest. The first time the so-called sensitization takes place, i.e. the immune system forms antibodies against the apparently hostile substance, which it is supposed to fight off. If the body comes into contact with the allergen again, large amounts of these antibodies are reproduced. They fight the substance and an allergic reaction occurs. Defense cells release various highly effective biochemical substances such as histamine, which are then responsible for the classic symptoms.

Common food allergy triggers are:

    • nuts
    • fish
    • wheat
    • Shellfish
    • Different types of fruit and vegetables
    • Eggs

Causes

Most adults have pollen-associated food allergies in hay fever (cross allergy). The structure of the allergenic molecules in pollen are similar to some structures in some foods. The immune system, so to speak, confuses the molecule and then reacts with an allergy to different foods.

Food Allergy

The symptoms of the allergy range from skin rashes with itching and wheals to gastrointestinal disorders to shortness of breath or, in the worst case, circulatory failure. The most common cross allergies:

    • Birch, alder, hazelnut – nuts, apples, other stone and pome fruits, potatoes
    • Grasses – tomato, peanut, legumes,
    • Mugwort – celery, spices, carrots

A food allergy must be differentiated from food intolerance. There is no immune reaction here. It is triggered, for example, by foods that contain a lot of histamines. In other forms, there is a lack of enzymes that are supposed to break down certain substances in the body (e.g. lactose intolerance). In addition, some dyes or preservatives in the body can cause a direct release of histamine. The symptoms are mostly similar to those of a real food allergy.

Investigation

Identifying the triggering allergen can be very difficult, especially due to today’s variety of convenience foods. The simplest test is the so-called prick test. Various test solutions are stabbed into the skin. If there is an allergy, a wheal will form at this point after approx. 20 minutes. In the case of food, it may be necessary not only to use the test solution but to place the food itself on the skin or to scratch a little and then prick the skin in order to obtain a reliable result. If the allergen cannot yet be found, there is the option of a provocation test. This means that the suspicious food is eaten in low doses under medical supervision in order to provoke an allergic reaction. A blood test, in which the antibodies against a suspected allergen can be detected, can also be helpful.

Treatment

If the allergic reaction is not too strong, drugs that block the histamine in the body (antihistamines) are usually sufficient for therapy. In more severe cases, cortisone is used to suppress the immune response. For patients who have ever had a massive allergic reaction, it is advisable to always have an emergency kit with them, consisting of an antihistamine, cortisone, and an adrenaline supplement, in case a circulatory reaction occurs.

Self Help

The best therapy, of course, is to avoid the offending food. However, some allergens change depending on the preparation, so that, for example, many patients with an apple allergy cannot tolerate the raw apple, but have no problems with the apple in cooked or baked form. Finished products on which the ingredients are not adequately declared can also cause difficulties. It is advisable not to use it.

Diet Cannot Cure Cancer

There are many rumors and false reports about healthy nutrition in cancer. Medical research is certain: nutrition is not a miracle cure for cancer. There is no form of nutrition that can cure or prevent cancer. But one thing is also certain: diet can have a positive effect on the course of cancer treatment and help prevent relapses.

This Is What Nutrition Can Do For Cancer

Depending on the type and stage of cancer, tumor diseases have a different impact on eating habits. Breast cancer, for example, is usually associated with fewer nutritional problems than esophageal cancer or colon cancer. The form and stage of cancer therapy also play an important role: targeted irradiation of a small tumor or a tumor precursor, for example, usually causes fewer symptoms than drug chemotherapy.

The following information on the right nutrition for cancer, therefore, provides a general overview for cancer patients and those interested. This information cannot and does not replace the urgently needed advice from the treating physician.

Appropriate Diet Improves The Chances Of Recovery

Cancer treatments often cause discomfort. This ranges from loss of appetite and severe gastrointestinal problems to pain when chewing, swallowing or purging. For many cancer sufferers, eating becomes torture. The result: Cancer sufferers often lose weight quickly. This weight loss, in turn, makes the cancer treatment less effective – and causes even more side effects. An adapted diet can help break out of this self-reinforcing cycle – or not even get into the cycle in the first place. This improves the chances of recovery. In addition, a healthy diet can help reduce the risk of relapse after cancer therapy has been overcome.

There is no one right form of nutrition for cancer patients. Rather, it is important to tailor diets to individual needs. The focus is primarily on 2 aspects:

    1. Avoid weight loss
    2. Prevent deficiency symptoms.

5 Simple Rules For Diet For Cancer

When you have cancer, it is less important which foods you eat. Of course, fresh food is usually better than industrially processed products such as fast food or ready-made meals. When in doubt, however, the motto applies: It’s better to eat something than not to eat. The German Nutrition Society (DGE) summarizes the basic recommendations in 5 simple rules for nutrition in cancer:

    1. Eat what you can handle.
    2. Then eat when you feel right.
    3. Create a relaxed atmosphere while eating.
    4. Let us help you avoid time pressure.
    5. If you have persistent complaints, ask for professional help.

What To Do About Cancer-Related Poor Appetite

A lack of appetite is one of the most common side effects of cancer and cancer treatments. The causes are manifold. Among other things, there are mucous membrane problems. Often, however, the tumor cells also make a contribution: They sometimes release messenger substances that inhibit appetite and cause nausea or vomiting. These symptoms are also typical side effects of cancer drugs.

 

Diet Cannot Cure Cancer

Unfortunately, the lack of appetite cannot be treated reliably. Experts, therefore, advise: Eat whenever you feel like it – even at night. Use every opportunity to strengthen yourself. Even the smallest portions are a step in the right direction. Try what stimulates your appetite. That can be a little stroll. If you can and are allowed to do sports, take advantage of that too.

Bitter substances stimulate digestion and thus also the appetite. Foods such as chicory, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, endive or rocket contain a particularly large number of bitter substances and many valuable vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. Herbs such as mugwort, tarragon, lovage, bay leaves, chervil or marjoram, and rosemary also contain bitter substances and are well tolerated by many cancer patients.

Eating If You Have Cancer-Related Chewing And Swallowing Problems

Chemotherapy and radiation therapy put a heavy strain on the body as a whole. They are designed to attack fast-growing cells such as tumor cells in particular. The rapidly growing cells also include, for example, the mucous membrane cells that line the mouth, esophagus, and intestines. If the mucous membranes are attacked or destroyed, this leads to chewing and swallowing difficulties, which can make eating very painful.

If the mucous membranes in the mouth, throat, and esophagus are attacked, you should avoid foods that further irritate the tissue. These include, for example, sour, spicy, salty, or hard foods. Food and drinks are lukewarm or cold (but not ice cold) better tolerated than hot.

In practice, soft and creamy dishes have proven their worth. It is not uncommon for cancer sufferers to use baby food in a jar. These mixtures are easy to swallow – and also contain many important vitamins, minerals, and trace elements.

Prevent Deficiency Diseases In Cancer

In order to prevent nutrition-related deficiency diseases in cancer, close medical monitoring is essential. Even a comparatively regular, fresh, and varied diet is sometimes not enough to meet the individual needs for nutrients. However, you should not resort to supplementary medication or food supplements without consulting a doctor. Vitamin and mineral products are – contrary to what the advertising promises – not always healthy. Rather, they also harbor risks. This even applies to healthy people.

If there is a pronounced nutritional deficiency, there is always the option of compensating for the need with a prescription-only balanced diet. Nutrition via infusions (parenteral nutrition) or tubes (enteral nutrition) ensures the supply when normal food intake is no longer possible or a deficiency has to be quickly compensated for.

No Evidence For Supposed Miracle Diets Against Cancer

Again and again one can read about forms of nutrition with which cancer is to be cured. These are often recommendations for low-carbohydrate or so-called ketogenic diets. On the Internet, in bookstores, with self-help groups and alternative practitioners – but also with some doctors – these diets are ascribed real miracles. The vast majority of experts, however, are certain: There is no form of nutrition that can cure cancer or even slow it down significantly.

The working group of the Prevention and Integrative Oncology Working Group (PRIO) of the German Cancer Society writes (see also studies/sources): “At the moment, there are no human studies (editor’s note: scientific studies on humans) that prove that a low-carbohydrate or ketogenic diet

    • can prevent or suppress the growth or metastasis of a tumor in humans
    • improves the effectiveness of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. “

Other experts agree: “Promises that cancer can be cured with the right diet are extremely dubious,” said Hans Hauner, head of the “Nutrition and Cancer” working group at the Munich Tumor Center in the news magazine Der Spiegel Fraud.

Human Studies Show Risks For Cancer Patients

The German Cancer Society has evaluated 15 studies that deal with the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on cancer patients. The result: ketogenic diets are out of the question for cancer patients because they carry the risk of weight loss. Because weight loss has been proven to worsen the chances of recovery.

In addition, low-carbohydrate and ketogenic diets sometimes have significant side effects such as loss of appetite, nausea or constipation or arteriosclerosis, kidney stones, inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), and dehydration.

What are the reports of the effects of ketogenic cancer diets based on?

The reports of the beneficial effects of the ketogenic diet in cancer are based on the interpretation of results from animal studies. It was observed that a low-carbohydrate diet can slow the growth of cancer cells in mice. However, a number of findings are withheld in most of the positive publications on the ketogenic cancer diet:

    1. After slowing down at the beginning, cancer cell growth even accelerated later in many animal experiments during the low-carbohydrate diet.
    2. In addition, tumor growth in the mice only slowed down if the animals also lost weight during the diet. Therefore, reputable researchers believe that weight loss is the cause of stunted growth.
    3. But the most important thing: results from animal experiments on mice cannot simply be transferred to humans.

Lose Weight Healthily Without Dieting

Healthy weight loss is easier than most people think. A change in diet works best when the food is enjoyable, tasty, and full. Diets can almost never achieve this: They also increase the yo-yo effect and also harbor health risks. Read how to lose weight healthily without dieting. Healthy weight loss is only possible through a change in diet that must be suitable for everyday use, fill you up, and taste delicious. Then healthy weight loss is much easier.

3 tips to make the change in diet work

The sun is laughing. Or vacation is approaching. Suddenly, when you look in the mirror, the pillows catch your eye even more. Before the bikini season starts, millions of Germans think: Get rid of a few pounds quickly! It is possible. But how? In fact, there are sensible and less sensible or even harmful diets. With a few very simple considerations, you can tell the difference between sensible nutrition programs and diets that are better to be cautious about.

Sensible diets can be implemented easily and sustainably

The first and fundamental tip for healthy weight loss, just asks yourself if you can and want to stick to the diet of your choice for the rest of your life. At this point, it quickly becomes clear that you don’t want to eat pineapple or cabbage soup all the time for the next few years. If you’ve been on a one-sided diet of any kind for 1, 2, or 4 weeks, you are probably a few pounds lighter. But with the return of normal, accustomed eating habits, they are back on just as quickly. You also run the risk of deficiency symptoms. In addition, diets accelerate the yo-yo effect.

Appropriate diets are inexpensive

You can confidently cross off the list of healthy and sustainable diets that involve extra spending on powders or tablets. Whether formula diets, alkaline fasting with food supplements, or HCG diet with homeopathic medicines: none of these diets is suitable for a long-term change in diet. In the long run, such diets are simply too expensive for most people. The manufacturers themselves recommend using their formula diets only for a limited period of a few weeks.

Lose Weight Healthily Without Dieting

Healthy weight loss doesn’t need any light products

Don’t get chained to a particular diet system. Weight Watchers and Ko. The main focus is not on your health, but on your money. An indication of this: the expensive and irrelevant light products in the food retail sector. Contrary to what was promised, these are usually no real help in losing weight. According to the Health Claims Regulation, they contain 30 percent less fat or sugar. Nutrition experts point out, however, that light products tempt you to simply eat more of them than you would with a normal product. Light products that contain sugar substitutes even carry the risk of allergic reactions and digestive problems such as diarrhea or flatulence.

The Risks of Dieting

The most well-known risk of dieting, whatever its form, is the yo-yo effect. The pounds are back after the diet faster than you would like to believe. This not only has to do with the fact that we return to our usual eating habits after a diet. And thus to the behavior that has made us fat over the years. More and more studies are providing evidence that short- and medium-term diets change metabolism significantly. As a result, the basal metabolic rate, i.e. the calorie requirement that the organism needs for our vital functions, falls – and this permanently. Diets promote the yo-yo effect.

Deficiency symptoms due to diets

In healthy people who want to lose a few pounds in a limited period of one or two weeks, deficiency symptoms from the diet are not to be expected. The situation is different if one-sided forms of nutrition are used over many weeks or even months. Then mineral deficiencies or vitamin deficiency diseases are not uncommon. Typical indications of such illnesses are tiredness, skin changes, headache, or dizziness. Brittle nails can indicate an iron deficiency, muscle cramps indicate a magnesium deficiency. Zinc deficiency often leads to hair loss, but also to depression or impotence.

From diet to eating disorder

Not infrequently, diets even lead to eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. This is especially true for girls and young women, but increasingly also for boys. Girls and boys alike have one main reason for dieting: unrealistic role models that are shaped by advertising and TV formats. In a study by the International Central Institute for Youth and Educational Television in cooperation with the Federal Eating Disorders Association, a third of the girls with eating disorders surveyed stated that the model shows Germany’s Next Top Model had played a very important role in their way into bulimia and anorexia. Another third speaks of slight influences of the program on the development and course of the eating disorder.

Book tip: eat full and lose weight

No more diets, no more yo-yo effect. The Munich nutritionist Volker Schusdziarra and the nutritionist Margit Hausmann with the program “Eat and lose weight”. Lose weight healthily without dieting – and still eat full with pleasure? It does not work? Go then! This is shown by Professor Dr. Volker Schusdziarra and the nutritionist Margit Hausmann with their sustainable nutrition program “eat enough and lose weight”. It puts an end to diet frustration: With this nutritional program, you are in charge, not the diet. It’s about your needs. And about ensuring that you feel comfortable with your diet over the long term. Eating is part of the quality of life. With “eat enough and lose weight” you can enjoy this quality of life with a clear conscience – and do a lot for your health in the process.

Benefits of a Healthy Diet for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Benefits of a healthy diet for rheumatoid arthritis, Doctors and patient organizations agree: a needs-based diet can significantly alleviate the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. It is not uncommon for individually tailored diets to reduce the drug dosage by up to half. In addition, an adapted diet helps to manage common complications such as osteoporosis better. In addition, a diet low in fat and meat reduces the risk of new flare-ups of rheumatoid arthritis.

Diet guidelines for rheumatoid arthritis

Experts agree that rheumatoid arthritis diets should be based primarily on plant-based foods. Milk and dairy products as well as fatty sea fish are considered useful supplements. In this respect, an ovo-vegetarian diet is the best choice for living better with rheumatoid arthritis. If you don’t want to do without meat, you should at least seriously reconsider the consumption of red meat.

In principle, you should discuss your diet in rheumatoid arthritis with your doctor. The information in this article cannot and is not intended to replace medical advice.

Fight the causes of rheumatoid arthritis with diet

To understand how diet can fight the causes of rheumatoid arthritis, a brief explanation is needed. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease. These are diseases of the immune system. In the case of rheumatoid arthritis, the immune system causes an ongoing inflammatory response. It is not known why the immune system attacks and ultimately destroy joints in rheumatoid arthritis.

Inflammatory messenger substances from food

However, medicine knows much more about how the joints are attacked. Inflammation mediators play a major role. The inflammation-mediating messenger substances include cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukins. Another group of inflammatory messengers is known as eicosanoids. These include prostaglandins and leukotrienes. A precursor to eicosanoids is arachidonic acid. It belongs to the fatty acids.

Decrease your dietary arachidonic acid intake

Arachidonic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid and is found in many animal foods. In addition, arachidonic acid is formed in the body from another omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid. Linoleic acid is found in some vegetable oils and animal fats and also enters the body with food.

So you can reduce the concentration of inflammatory messengers by reducing your dietary intake of arachidonic acid and linoleic acid. This reduces inflammatory reactions and improves symptoms such as the progression of rheumatoid arthritis.

Omega-3 fatty acids against inflammatory messengers

But that’s not all. The most important antagonist of arachidonic acid is eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid. The targeted absorption of eicosapentaenoic acid helps to displace arachidonic acid from the body.

So, diet can help combat the causes of rheumatoid arthritis by consuming little arachidonic acid and high levels of omega-3 fatty acids.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Diet

Foods high in arachidonic acid (avoid)

Foods with a particularly high proportion of arachidonic acid are, according to the German Nutrition Advice and Information Network, for example:

    • Lard: 1,700 mg / 100 g
    • Butter croissants: 1,070 mg / 100 g
    • Soup chicken: 730 mg / 100 g
    • Pork liver: 520 mg / 100 g
    • Veal chop: 320 mg / 100 g
    • Roast chicken: 230 mg / 100 g
    • Egg yolk: 200 mg / 100 g
    • Pork 120 mg / 100 g

Foods low in arachidonic acid (prefer)

Arachidonic acid is only found in foods of animal origin. Therefore, if you have rheumatoid arthritis, you should give preference to all plant-based foods. But there are also some foods of animal origin that are part of a healthy diet for rheumatoid arthritis for various reasons. These are for example:

    • Whey: 0 mg / 100 g
    • Quark (lean): 0 mg / 100 g
    • Quark (20% fat): 5 mg / 100 g
    • Vegetable oils (wheat germ, peanut oil): 0 mg / 100 g
    • Cow’s milk (1.5% fat content): 2 mg / 100 g
    • Cow’s milk (3.5% fat content): 4 mg / 100 g

Foods high in omega-3 fatty acids (preferred)

Omega-3 fatty acids help to alleviate inflammation and also have other protective properties. The omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are particularly biologically effective. These omega-3 fatty acids, which are useful for the human metabolism, are mainly found in high-fat cold-water fish such as :

    • Sardines: 2,084 mg / 100 g
    • Baltic herring: 1,910 mg / 100 g
    • Salmon: 1,748 mg / 100 g
    • Mackerel: 1,327 mg / 100 g
    • Trout: 1,024 mg / 100 g
    • Tuna: 816 mg / 100 g.

Fish oil capsules as an alternative

For the intake of omega-3 fatty acids, sea fish should be on the menu at least twice a week. If you don’t like that, you can consume 30 mg fish oil fatty acids per day per capsule. Similar positive effects can be found for alpha-linolenic acid (not to be confused with linoleic acid), which occurs in linseed, rapeseed, wheat germ, and walnut oil. Their positive effect is based on the fact that the body can produce eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from alpha-linolenic acid, the antagonist of the pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid (see above).

Healthy ingredients from plants

People with rheumatoid arthritis benefit from a plant-based diet not only from the reduced intake of inflammatory messenger substances. According to the German Rheuma League, other plant ingredients also have anti-inflammatory effects. This applies, for example, to:

    • Resveratrol found in red grapes, raspberries, and peanuts
    • Genistein (soy)
    • Catechins (black and green tea)
    • Bioflavonoids such as quercetin (apple, onion)
    • Myristicin (nutmeg, parsley)
    • Sulforaphane (broccoli)
    • Isothiocyanates (mustard, cabbage, radish, and rocket)
    • Polyphenols (coffee)

Drink enough water

Many people underestimate the importance of water for their metabolism and drink too little – or the wrong thing. According to the German Rheumatism League, people with rheumatoid arthritis should drink more than healthy people. The Rheumaliga recommends at least 30 milliliters per kilogram of body weight per day for women. A woman weighing 50 kg, therefore, needs 1.5 liters, and a man weighing 85 kg 2.5 liters per day.

Water, unsweetened fruit teas, and fruit juice spritzers (two parts water / one part fruit juice) are particularly suitable. Coffee can be included in fluid intake. That coffee is supposed to remove fluids from the body is just a persistent fairy tale.

Alcohol in moderation

Alcohol is a cell poison and an addictive substance – and should therefore always be viewed critically from a medical point of view. In the case of rheumatoid arthritis, however, there are credible studies that show a positive influence. Accordingly, moderate alcohol consumption can lower the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. In an English study (Sheffield cohort), the AR risk in non-drinkers was more than four times higher than in study participants who reported drinking alcohol for more than 10 days a month. Studies on the course of the disease have also produced similar effects. One possible explanation: alcohol probably helps to reduce the concentration of individual inflammatory messengers.

Diet For Osteoarthritis

What is Osteoarthritis?

Doctors call osteoarthritis the excessive wear and tear of joint cartilage. They differentiate between silent and activated osteoarthritis.

  • Silent osteoarthritis is the hardly noticeable initial stage. It often begins around the age of 35. In the further course – more often from the age of 60 – pain sometimes occurs, which manifests itself primarily as start-up pain (when starting a movement) or stress pain (when loading a joint).
  • Activated osteoarthritis is what doctors call joint wear, which leads to more or less severe inflammation attacks. The attacks of inflammation are often associated with severely restricted mobility of the joints and feelings of tension. Sometimes the joints stiffen and deform.

Detailed Information About Osteoarthritis

Lost articular cartilage is irretrievably lost. He cannot reform himself. For more information on symptoms, causes, and treatment of excessive joint wear, see the disease picture osteoarthritis.

Basics Of Nutrition In Osteoarthritis

The basics of a healthy diet for osteoarthritis and the prevention of excessive cartilage wear can be easily summarized. If you eat a very varied and low-meat diet and replace industrial finished products with fresh foods, then you are doing a lot right. Because in this way you supply the organism with a multitude of nutrients. This diversity almost inevitably means that you supply the remaining cartilage with everything that is important. According to the unanimous opinion of medical research, food supplements are not useful. On the contrary, they can even do harm. More on this below.

Avoid And Reduce Excess Weight

At the same time, a fresh and varied diet is a very good basis for avoiding obesity or for shedding extra pounds. Reducing obesity is one of the basics of the osteoarthritis diet because every kilo too much puts unnecessary stress on the joints. In addition, there is no longer any doubt in medicine that fat cells release messenger substances that promote inflammation. Obesity, therefore, increases the risk that silent osteoarthritis will turn into activated osteoarthritis with significantly more stress symptoms.

Inhibit Inflammatory Processes From Food

Diet can promote or reduce inflammation. That depends on the choice of food. The post Diet for Rheumatoid Arthritis provides detailed information on which anti-inflammatory foods to prefer and which anti-inflammatory foods to avoid. 

Food Recommendations For Nutrition In Osteoarthritis

Nutritionists recommend a high-fiber diet with lots of fruit and vegetables to prevent or treat osteoarthritis. Meat and sausage products should therefore rarely be on the menu. Milk and dairy products as well as cold-water fish, on the other hand, should be an integral part of the osteoarthritis diet.

Diet For Osteoarthritis

Recommended Foods For Osteoarthritis

According to the NDR nutritional docs, the following are particularly recommended:

    • Bread, cereals, and side dishes (2 palm-sized portions/day): Whole grain bread; Oatmeal, muesli without sugar; Whole grain pasta, whole grain rice, jacket potatoes
    • Fruit (1-2 handfuls/day): all types of fruit that are low in sugar; in moderation high-sugar varieties such as pineapple, banana, pear, honeydew melon, persimmon (Sharon), mango, sweet cherry, and grapes
    • Vegetables (3 times 2 handfuls/day): all types of salad, preferably with bitter substances (chicory, dandelion), all types of cabbage, artichokes, fennel, cucumber, legumes, kohlrabi, carrots, radishes, sauerkraut, asparagus, spinach, zucchini and all types of mushrooms as well Herbs
    • Fats and oils (2 tbsp/day): chia oil, hemp oil, linseed oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil, walnut oil, wheat germ oil; little butter; for frying: coconut oil
    • Fish and seafood (2 servings/week): eel, trout, halibut, herring, cod, carp, salmon, mackerel, sardine/anchovies, plaice, sole, turbot; Shellfish like crayfish, shrimp, lobster, crab, shrimp
    • Sausage products and meat (1 to 2 servings/week, up to 100 g gross weight each): sliced ​​turkey breast, chicken; less often: beef fillet, veal, game; Corned beef
    • Eggs: max 2 to 3 weeks,
    • Milk and milk products, cheese in moderation (up to 300 ml daily): milk 1.5% fat, buttermilk, quark up to 20% fat, natural yogurt 1.5% fat; Harzer cheese, grainy cream cheese; rarely: cream, sour cream, crème fraîche; Cheese up to 45%: semi-hard cheese, soft cheese, feta, mozzarella, cream cheese
    • Nuts and seeds (approx. 1 handful/day): chia seeds; Cashew nuts, hazelnuts, pumpkin seeds, flax seeds, macadamia nuts, almonds, pine nuts, walnuts; in moderation: sunflower seeds
    • Snacks and nibbles: seldom dark chocolate with a cocoa content of 70 percent or more.
    • Drinks (approx. 2 liters/day): water, unsweetened tea, especially green tea, and herbal tea; up to three cups of coffee without milk.

Not Recommended Foods For Osteoarthritis

According to the NDR nutrition docs, it is better to avoid these foods if you have osteoarthritis:

    • Bread, cereals, and side dishes: croissants, crispbread, pretzels, milk rolls, toast bread, white bread, wheat rolls, rusks; peeled rice, durum wheat noodles, mashed potatoes, potato pancakes, croquettes, pancakes, french fries
    • Fruit: sugared canned fruit, candied dried fruit, and fruit puree
    • Vegetables: Only rarely use vegetable mixes with butter or cream
    • Fats and oils: safflower oil, goose lard, mayonnaise, palm fat, lard, sunflower oil
    • Fish and seafood: fish pickled in mayonnaise or cream, breaded fish
    • Charcuterie and meat: all charcuterie except turkey breast and chicken; generally no pork (due to the high content of arachidonic acid)
    • Eggs: max. 2 to 3 weeks
    • Milk and dairy products: no sweetened finished products such as fruit buttermilk, fruit yogurt, fruit quark, rice pudding, cocoa preparations, pudding
    • Nuts and seeds: no peanuts and salted nuts
    • Snacks and nibbles: no sweets such as chips, ice cream, savory biscuits, sweet baked goods, sweet dairy products
    • Drinks (approx. 2 liters/day): no fruit juices, soft drinks, soy drinks, or mixed milk drinks

Dietary Supplement Against Osteoarthritis

Most experts believe that dietary supplements against osteoarthritis are not useful, and sometimes even dangerous. Nonetheless, they are very good business for manufacturers. According to the health service provider IMS Health, Germans spend a good 100 million euros annually on supposed cartilage protection agents (so-called chondroprotective agents).

No Evidence Of The Effects Of Chondroitin, Glucosamine Or Hyaluronic Acid

Over-the-counter medicines and dietary supplements for osteoarthritis mainly contain substances such as chondroitin, glucosamine, and hyaluronic acid. The promise of the advertising: The chondroprotective are supposed to strengthen and protect the cartilage. Unfortunately, in the unanimous opinion of serious experts, this is an empty promise.

Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine are important players in cartilage metabolism. After ingestion, however, they do not even reach the joints, but rather are destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract. According to independent studies available to date, chondroprotective are no more effective than products that do not contain active substances (placebos). This was confirmed, for example, by the American GAIT study (Glucosamine-Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial, see sources) from 2010. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) found in 2009 that there was no positive effect of glucosamine alone or in combination with chondroitin sulfate would give the preservation of joints.

Dangerous Interactions Of Glucosamine

Rather, the ESA, together with the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (see sources), warns of dangerous interactions. According to this, drugs and food supplements containing glucosamine can increase the effect of anticoagulant drugs from the group of coumarin anticoagulants and, in the worst case, even cause cerebral hemorrhage.

Another example of undesirable effects of preparations containing glucosamine or chondroitin is allergic reactions. Many of these preparations are made from shellfish or fish proteins and can trigger allergic reactions up to anaphylactic shock.

Better Not To Take Vitamin And Mineral Supplements For Osteoarthritis

There are a large number of vitamins and minerals or trace element supplements that manufacturers claim to protect joints and cartilage. Common ingredients are, for example, vitamins A, C, and E or selenium. The Federal Association of Consumer Organizations has examined many dietary supplements. The result: there is therefore no positive effect on joints and cartilage (see sources). In addition, many dosages go well beyond the maximum recommended intake values. This in turn increases the risk of drug interactions or other complications.

Energy Balance And Energy Requirements

Accordingly, a negative energy balance should be created to reduce body weight, i. H. the energy consumed must be higher than the supplied energy. By means of an energy balance calculation, the daily energy requirement can be determined. This consists of the basal metabolic rate, the work turnover, the leisure time turnover, and compensation for digestive losses.

Metabolic

The metabolic rate of a person is dependent on his weight and gender. Women have a 10 percent lower basal metabolic rate. It represents the energy needed to maintain all vital functions in peace. In men, the basal metabolic rate is 1.0 kcal/kg body weight per hour. In women 0.9 kcal / kg.

Labor Turnover

Work turnover is the amount of energy needed for physical work (occupation). For the work turnover flat rates are added to the basal metabolic rate, since an exact determination is only possible under laboratory-like conditions. For purely sedentary activity, the work turnover corresponds to about 20 percent of the basal metabolic rate. Slightly active, sedentary, or standing activity with occasional walking accounts for 30 percent of the basal metabolic rate. Housework, gardening, assembly line work, frequent walking, sitting a little bit correspond to 50 percent of the basal metabolic rate. Auxiliary, loading work, physical education teacher, dancer, etc. must underlie 75 percent of the base turnover and construction workers, miners, and furniture packers 100 percent.

Leisure turnover

The leisure turnover represents the amount of energy that results from activities besides the occupation. In one hour of walking, a person consumes about 2.86 kcal. When running at 9 km/h 9.5 kcal per hour. Cycling at 15 km/h consumes 5.3 kcal per hour and per kilogram of body weight. In addition, when calculating the total energy expenditure, the loss of energy due to incomplete absorption of nutrients from the intestine and heat losses in the metabolism must not be missing. For these two factors, 15% of the daily energy requirement is reckoned with.

Energy Balance And Energy Requirements

Example: A man of 37 years and 88 kilograms of weight exercises a light activity every day for 8 hours. In his free time, he rides an hour by bicycle at a speed of 15 km / h twice a week. His energy balance is calculated as follows:

Basal metabolism: 1.0 kcal x 88 kg x 24 hrs 2112 kcal

Work turnover: Lightweight activity, plus 30 percent 634 kcal

Leisure turnover: 15 km / h cycling (5.3 kcal / kg / h, based on 88 kg and 2 hours) total: 933 kcal, 133 kcal per day

Together: 2879 kcal plus 15 percent supplement: 432 kcal = total energy requirement per day: 3311 kcal

So if he consumed 3311 kcal per day, the energy balance would be theoretically balanced. Often, however, the calculated value is very high and already exceeds the actual energy input.

How many grams of carbs, fat, and protein would that be per day? This can also be calculated very easily. Assuming a 55:30:15 ratio, you get the following numbers:

    • Carbohydrates (55 percent) = 1821 kcal
    • Fat (30 percent) = 993 kcal
    • Protein (15 percent) = 497 kcal

Carbohydrates (55 percent) = 1821 kcal: 4.1 kcal = 444 g fat (30 percent) = 993, due to the fact that carbs and protein each contain 4.1 kcal per gram and fat 9.3 kcal kcal: 9.3 kcal = 107 g protein (15 percent) = 497 kcal: 4.1 kcal = 121 g

This amount of food he should therefore take classical dietary recommendations after daily to maintain his body weight. Condition is, however, with such a high carbohydrate intake a regular exercise. More meaningful in the context of a weight reduction would be a moderate reduction of carbohydrates and an increase in the protein, fruit, and vegetable content. This also takes into account the glycemic load. To see how many calories you consume each day, an analysis of a 3-7 day nutritional protocol is essential.

Carbohydrates are The Most Important Nutrients

Carbohydrates are the most important nutrients in humans besides fats and proteins. They are formed from the substances carbon, water, and oxygen, through photosynthesis, in the plants using solar energy and chlorophyll.

Carbohydrates can be divided into:

    • Simple sugars (monosaccharides):
    • Glucose, fructose, galactose
    • (Low molecular weight)
    • Double sugar (disaccharides):
    • Sucrose, lactose, maltose
    • (Low molecular weight)
    • Multiple sugars (polysaccharides):
    • Starch, glycogen, cellulose
    • (High molecular weight)

The various carbohydrates of food are converted into glucose in the body. From glucose, cells can also synthesize other sugars for specific tasks. The carbons are in the body in constant assembly and disassembly.

Tasks of carbohydrates in the body:

    • Carbohydrates are the main source of energy for the organism. 1 g of carbs provides 4.2 kcal of energy. Almost all cells use glucose as an energy source. The brain cells and the erythrocytes (red blood cells) rely solely on glucose as an energy source. With a surplus of energy from carbohydrates, the surplus is converted into fat and stored in the body. When storing carbohydrates as body fat, about 30% of the energy is lost.
    • Another important function of carbohydrates is that of a reserve substance. In the form of the body’s own glycogen, carbohydrates represent readily available reserve energy. A person weighing 70 kg has a glycogen reserve of about 350 – 400 g, which corresponds to about 1,500 kcal. The glycogen supply is about 1/3 stored in the liver and about 2/3 in the muscles.
    • Fiber is also carbohydrates. It used to be thought that they were not usable by the human body because human digestive juices contain no enzymes that can break these compounds. It has been overlooked that some dietary fiber is fermented by enzymes of the microorganisms of the large intestine. In addition to gases, short-chain fatty acids, which can be utilized by humans, are also produced. The energy gain from the dietary fiber is negligible due to the small amounts supplied. The intake recommendation of the DGE of 30 g fiber per day is often not reached.

carbohydrates are The Most Important Nutrients

Feed recommendation for carbohydrates:

Since carbohydrates and fats can be widely represented as energy suppliers, there are no exact intake recommendations. For a normal fat metabolism daily 60 – 100 g of carbohydrates are necessary. If too little energy is supplied in the form of carbohydrates and fats, protein is broken down instead of the energy carrier. One speaks therefore of the protein-saving effect of the carbohydrates.

The DGE recommends covering at least 50% of the energy needs of carbohydrates.

Starchy, high molecular weight carbohydrates should be preferred. Consumption of low molecular weight carbohydrates should be reduced.

Carbohydrates in food:

1.) Simple sugars (monosaccharides)

Glucose (glucose)

    • fruit
    • vegetables

Fructose (fructose)

    • fruit
    • honey

Galactose (mucus sugar)

    • milk

2.) Double sugar (disaccharides)

Sucrose (beet and cane sugar)

    • sugar beet
    • sugarcane
    • Table sugar, candy

Lactose (milk sugar)

    • milk
    • Dairy products

Maltose (malt sugar)

    • barley
    • beer
    • malt extract

3.) multiple sugars (polysaccharides)

Strength

    • Grain
    • potatoes
    • legumes

glycogen

    • liver
    • muscles

cellulose

    • all plants

Balanced Nutrition: Eating Not Just On The Pleasure Principle

Often we eat at our whim or out of habit, because at this time we just have lunch. Less from actual hunger, which is a feeling he does not know about most Germans.

Do Not Just Eat According To The Pleasure Principle

Often we eat at our whim or out of habit, because at this time we just have lunch. Less from actual hunger, which is a feeling he does not know about most Germans. And the crowd: Most of us eat as we were taught; For example, 200 g of meat per adult per lunch – and every day!

Four Reasons Why We Should Eat Less Meat

    1. Meat is hard to digest but quickly perishable. Look for the next piece of meat on the piece that you swallow. Is it crushed to pulp or is it more like a lump? Surely you will find that meat can not dissolve one hundred percent. Even our stomach and intestine are not able to do this because they have neither the right teeth nor any other device for it. So it happens that meat is not completely digested and excreted, but often remains in the pockets and folds of the intestine until it disintegrates. Colon cancer can be a result of it.
    2. For regular meat eaters, blood and tissues often have higher ammonia levels. The excess animal protein turns into nitrogen, which forms ammonia. Ammonia is one of the strongest toxic substances in the body. It deforms the cells and the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, main component of chromosomes and carriers of genetic information) and can cause cancer. Also, ammonia has a foul smell, which we excrete through the skin and the throat, which we perceive as body and halitosis.
    3. Animal foods contain arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid that forms pro-inflammatory eicosanoids in the human body. This favors rheumatic diseases. Arachidonic acid is found in meat, sausages, eggs and dairy products. However, two small portions of meat a week are irrelevant to the arachidonic acid level. Fish also contains arachidonic acid, but this is counteracted by the EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) also contained in sea fish protein. So that more often (2-3 times a week) fish should be eaten from the sea, especially if there are already rheumatic complaints. This can be smoked fish, fried, steamed or z. B. the herring from the tin. Read here also our article “Hering does rheumatism well”.
    4. Fats (lipids) as in the meat increase the cholesterol level (LDL cholesterol) in the blood. He produces two grams of cholesterol, which our body needs every day. Cholesterol is a basic substance of the body and is produced in the liver. This vital fat-like substance is needed to build stable cell membranes, make bile acids, without which the digestion of certain foods does not work, produce vitamin D, which is needed to build up the bones, and sex hormones, eg. Testosterone and estrogens, as well as hormones of the adrenal cortex, such as cortisone to form. With the consumption of sausage, meat, fish and poultry we take about 70 mg of additional cholesterol per 100 g (for milk, cheese, egg, fat and oil the average is even 84 mg cholesterol per 100 g). If the body is unable to break down or excrete these fats, they will accumulate in the blood vessels just like lime. If this process is not stopped (eg with cholesterol-free diet), over time a vasoconstriction forms, the cause of stroke and heart attack.

do-not-just-eat-according-to-the-pleasure-principle

Well Chewed, Is Half Digested

Thorough chewing plays an important role in good digestion. B. of meat. Each bite should be chewed 35 to 50 times. The more we chew, the more saliva forms, which is an important basis for digestion. Saliva contains the necessary enzymes that start the digestive process. Saliva is highly alkaline and is the antagonist to stomach acid. The alkaline porridge restores the balance in the acidic environment of the stomach and protects it from excess acid, which can attack the stomach lining and cause stomach discomfort or gastric ulcers.

It is also important not to drink at meals. The liquid would wash away the saliva without it being able to develop its beneficial effect. It depends on the composition of the food The balanced diet is a conscious, healthy, wholesome and varied compilation of food and drink. These should be largely chemically untreated and carefully prepared. This ensures that the body receives all vital nutrients such as protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, trace elements and minerals in sufficient quantities. It depends on the right amount: Little meat, but more fish, fruits, vegetables and whole grains (like rice, bread, rolls, noodles)

The Right Diet And Vitamins For Mental Health

As long as he can remember, he “somehow always wanted to die,” says Jeff from Northridge, California. As a teenager, he started smoking and drinking crystal meth. For years he wavered between periods of deep depression and manic heights. At the age of 43, he was diagnosed by a psychiatrist: bipolar disorder.

Today Jeff (he does not want to read his surname here) is stable, self-assured, downright lively – thanks to medication. But they also have side effects. Maybe he would not have to swallow so many pills if he would eat differently. New research suggests that proper nutrition can not only avert heart disease and diabetes; With it you can also prevent mental illness or even treat it.

Thus, according to some studies omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of schizophrenia; certain nutrient mixtures have helped alleviate anxiety in earthquake survivors. Mentally ill people would be open to treatment options without having to pay the unpleasant price that many medicines bring with them. Weight gain about and listlessness.

Although alternative medicine experts have been recommending certain nutrients for years, “Western medicine has simply ignored that for a long time,” says Eva Selhub, a GP in Boston and author of the book “Your Health Destiny.” Change has only begun since science has become increasingly interested in nutritional psychology. This refers to the nutritional mental health, in contrast to nutritional psychology, which in turn is about psychological influence on eating habits.

Diet change instead of just medications

Research plans were set up, the connections between food and mental well-being examined, research institutes founded. Holistic medical approaches are in vogue anyway. Patients want to be seen as people, not limited to individual symptoms. This fits in with the idea of ​​influencing health through nutrition.

Jerome Sarris, Senior Research Associate at the Department of Psychology, University of Melbourne, believes the traditional separation of body and soul is “paralyzing.” In a review published in the science magazine “The Lancet” he writes that nutrition is as important for psychiatry as it is for cardiology or gastroenterology.

He predicts today that therapists will in future not only ask about the mood of their patients, but also about their sleep, exercise and eating habits. They may prescribe diet or supplements rather than just medications.

At best, according to Sarris, such approaches would take at least ten years to become accepted in practice. With the necessary drugs already in place, donors would not be willing to fund nutrition research, says Julia Rucklidge, a professor of clinical psychology at Canterbury University.

vitamins-for-mental-health

Little research on nutritional supplementation

Even magazines were reluctant to publish such studies, in the belief that nobody cares. Nevertheless, 11 nutrition and mental health studies are funded by the National Institute for Mental Health or its holistic medicine spin-off. And a spokesman for the New England Journal of Medicine wrote in an e-mail that “a handful” of dietary supplements have appeared there.

Advocates say the time is ripe for new ways to treat mental illness. Although the development of medicines has led to a sharp decline in the number of deaths from heart disease and cancer. But in the US, 41,000 people still die every year, compared to around 10,000 in Germany. The number has been stagnant for around 15 years.

“Why do we continue to regard medication as a recognized, viable treatment option for people with severe mental illness?” Rucklidge asks.

More mentally ill because of sitting?

Scientists predict that as more and more people accept the sedentary Western lifestyle with its high-fat and high-sugar diet, the number of mental illnesses will continue to rise.

In fact, more and more new studies have confirmed that balanced nutrition contributes to precaution. A 2013 study published in “BMC Medicine” found that a modified Mediterranean diet reduced the risk of developing depression three years later.

Now researchers want to know if a change in diet can also be used to treat depression. This is helped by the recently launched SMILES study, where randomly selected participants change their diet and are then compared to a support group.

Folic acid for depression

Also supplements could bring relief. For example, research found a connection between vitamin D deficiency and twice the schizophrenia risk; There is also evidence that folic acid may act as an antidepressant.

Nutrient combinations that are more tailored to your physical needs could work even better. In a study of adults who were suffering from anxiety or stress after the 2011 Christchurch earthquake, Rucklidge found that subjects taking a combination of nutrients experienced a severe decline in mental symptoms.

In addition, there are findings that point to the relationship between intestinal bacteria and brain health; Initial research shows that probiotics – good bacteria – can lift mood and thinking.

There are, of course, studies that found that participants given selected nutrients did not fare better than those treated with placebos (Rucklidge notes, including psychiatric unremarkable patients, which did not improve at all) ).

Connection of nutrition and psychiatry

And although nutrients have only weak side effects, they can harbor certain risks. In addition, healthy eating needs motivation – and mental disorders “deprive people of their willpower,” as Jeff says.

Nevertheless, Sarris and Rucklidge hope that the growing number of essays, organizations and conferences dealing with nutrition and psychiatry will make the subject last longer. “I’m confident,” says Rucklidge. “More and more often I can make people think: Maybe the madman from the university is right.”

Amino Acids And Their Importance To The Immune System

    1. Arginine

Arginine is an important amino acid that keeps the cells of the intestinal mucosa healthy. A healthy intestinal mucosa is indispensable for a functioning immune defense. In addition, arginine stimulates the thymus gland, which sits behind the breastbone and forms important cells for the immune system, whereby the defense cells are increased and activated. In addition, arginine is also the most important precursor of nitric oxide (NO) in the human body.

Lack of NO often leads to cardiovascular disease. Arginine protects blood vessels by relaxing blood vessels, improving blood circulation, normalizing blood pressure, and counteracting the formation of blood clots. Studies have shown that the formation of NO can be increased by the supply of arginine and thus the vessels are kept healthy. In addition to this positive effect on the cardiovascular system, arginine has other beneficial effects.1 It has a positive effect on wound healing and the formation of collagen.2 Collagen is an important component of skin, bones, tendons, cartilage, blood vessels, and blood vessels teeth.

    1. Glutamine

Glutamine is an amino acid that the body needs for the formation of lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cells that are responsible for the production of antibodies and thus represent an important part of the immune system. Glutamine is predominantly in the muscle cells. During physical activity, the muscle consumes glucose and glutamine. These two substances are then missing the immune system. A weakened immune system can be caused, among other things by a glutamine and glucose deficiency. Recent studies suggest that glutamine is indispensable for the metabolism as well as the structure and function of the intestine.

amino-acids

    1. Glycine

Glycine is the smallest amino acid in the human body and involved in the production of antibodies. Glycine prevents premature cell death. In addition, it is involved in the production of antibodies and therefore very important for a healthy immune system. Together with cysteine ​​and glutamic acid, it forms an antioxidant (radical scavenger). Antioxidants relieve inflammatory processes in the body.4

    1. Cysteine

Cysteine ​​affects the immune system because it supports the maturation of lymphocytes, activates cells that are needed for the immune defense and play a role in the formation of an important antioxidant in the liver.5

    1. Folic Acid

Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin that is present in foods as folate. 80 to 90% of people in Germany consume less folic acid than recommended. Folic acid is particularly important for women who want to have children and pregnant women because it reduces the risk of miscarriage and can prevent malformations. Folic acid is also important for all people because it participates in cell division, especially in the bone marrow and digestive tract. In addition, folic acid prevents homocysteinemia. Homocysteinemia means that there are too many cell toxins in the blood, which is known to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

    1. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

The term vitamin B6 summarizes several substances that are similar in structure. Vitamin B6 is involved in about 100 enzyme reactions. The reactions are almost all related to the metabolism of the amino acids (protein building blocks). Vitamin B6 is also essential for nerve and brain metabolism and supports the immune system’s defenses.

    1. Cobalamin (vitamin B12)

Vitamin B12 plays a very important role in the whole metabolism and in almost all metabolic processes. It is important as a co-factor of enzymes in the mitochondria (“power plants” of the cells), is important in the defense against infection, and for the function of the nervous system.

    1. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

Ascorbic acid is an important antioxidant (radical scavenger), i. H. it prevents the oxidation of important molecules. In addition, vitamin C has many important properties that are good for your health. Mainly, vitamin C is involved in the defense against viruses and bacteria by mainly accumulating in the leukocytes (white blood cells) and supports activated T cells (white blood cell group that promotes the immune system).

    1. Calcium

Calcium is a mineral that is involved in many important processes in the body. It stabilizes and strengthens bones and teeth. Calcium is also very important for the nerves and muscles as it controls tension and irritation. Calcium also plays an important role in blood clotting and cells.

    1. Zinc

Zinc is an indispensable (essential) trace element. It is part of many enzymes and is important for sugar, fat, and protein metabolism. In addition, it is involved in the structure of the genetic material and cell growth. Zinc is needed for many important processes in the body, such as growth, regeneration, and the immune system. Zinc can not be stored in the body and therefore needs to be applied daily. Zinc deficiency can be manifested by brittle nails, a weak immune system, anemia, and growth disorders. 

    1. Selenium

Selenium is also an indispensable (essential) trace element. It plays an important role as a radical scavenger and is involved in the growth processes of almost all cells of the body. It forms antibodies and is therefore important for the immune defense. Selenium is also involved in various metabolic processes. Various studies have shown that the use of selenium reduces the risk of lung, prostate and colon cancer.