Definition: What is a Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) and how does it arise? CHD is the most common heart disease of the entire world population. It is also referred to as ischemic heart disease. In Germany, approximately 6 million patients are affected. Scientists believe that the incidence of coronary heart disease will increase with increasing life expectancy.

CHD primarily affects people over the age of 50 and is one of the most frequently reported causes of death in all industrialized countries. It is a disease of the heart caused by occlusions and constrictions in the coronary arteries.

These arteries are among the blood vessels that supply the heart with energy-giving nutrients and oxygen-rich blood. Especially with physical stress, the blood transport through the body is reduced and there are typical symptoms of CHD.

How is the calcification of coronary arteries formed?

Calcification of coronary arteries is caused by deposition of arteriosclerotic plaques by :

  • cholesterol
  • saturated fatty acids
  • lime-like particles

In some cases, initial nutritional damage already exists due to :

  • high blood pressure
  • Diabetes mellitus

The human immune system does not recognize the plaques as endogenous. This is followed by inflammatory reactions and the plaques become increasingly unstable since activated immune cells no longer fulfill their task and die in the same. Deposits begin to open by the progressive increase. The contents enter the bloodstream and finally the coronary vessels, where it settles again.

Typical symptoms of CHD

Depending on the stage of development of CHD different symptoms occur. It is distinguished into three different forms of stages of coronary heart disease.

Latent CHD

A latent coronary heart disease is characterized by mild to moderate constrictions of the coronary arteries. There is coronary sclerosis.

Although this phase is asymptomatic, there is already a significant mismatch between oxygen supply and demand. Despite the absence of symptoms, it is possible to detect a reduced perfusion of the heart muscle. In diabetics often no typical symptoms are noticeable.

Stable CHD

At this stage, sufferers notice typical CHD symptoms that occur under certain conditions. In most cases, they return alone or can be treated with medication (stable angina pectoris).

Angina Pectoris is the leading symptom of coronary heart disease. Affected notice a feeling of tightness as well as pain directly behind the breastbone. Primarily, the symptoms occur in cold but also exercise. Other factors, such as mental stress or high-fat meals, can trigger these symptoms as well.

The resulting pain often spreads to the left arm or to other body regions such as upper abdomen, jaw or neck.

Other typical symptoms of CHD are:

  • Shortness of breath (shortness of breath)
  • sweats
  • Arrhythmia

Occasionally affected people feel dread. As soon as the affected person comes to rest or stays warm again, these symptoms of angina pectoris return.

Typical symptoms of angina pectoris vary in their frequency, intensity, and duration. They are closely related to the current progression of the CHD. In patients with renal insufficiency or diabetes mellitus, chest pain persists. This also applies to persons over 75 years and operated on. Here are breathlessness, dizziness, nausea, and radiation of pain in the abdominal area as warning signs.

Unstable CHD and acute coronary syndrome

Similar symptoms of angina pectoris also occur here. However, they are significantly stronger and unpredictable (unstable angina pectoris). This expression can not always be adjusted to the medication.

As a result, coronary heart disease leads to a reduced resilience of sufferers and causes a reduction in performance. Depending on the severity, this affects the quality of life. In individual cases, patients can no longer sufficiently fulfill everyday tasks.

At the same time, the clinical picture may continue to deteriorate and become a life-threatening stage of CHD. The so-called acute coronary syndrome is characterized by three manifestations :

  1. Unstable angina pectoris
  2. is characterized by a lack of elevations of the heart enzymes (creatine kinase MB, troponin) in the blood. ECG results show no changes that indicate a heart attack.
  3. Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI, acute myocardial infarction)
  4. shows no changes in the ECG, however, heart enzymes that point to possible heart disease and an infarction, detectable in the blood.
  5. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, acute myocardial infarction)
  6. manifests itself by typical changes in the ECG and detectable cardiac enzyme levels in the blood

As a consequence of these features occurs :

  • Heart failure due to a heart attack
  • Heart arrhythmia due to a myocardial scar or coronary circulatory disorders
  • Sudden cardiac death

Risk factors for the development of CHD

The training of CHD is favored by numerous risk factors. Women over the age of 55 and men over the age of 45 are at particular risk. The previous lifestyle plays a particularly important role here. Unhealthy, high-fat diet, lack of exercise and smoking increase the risk of diseases such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, lipid metabolism and glucose tolerance disorders. As a consequence of this, in turn, a CHD can arise.

Not to be ignored is the family disposition. Special caution is advised when cases of CHD to heart attack have already occurred in the family environment if possible risk factors should be largely avoided and a special focus on a healthy, balanced lifestyle should be laid. 

what-is-coronary-heart-disease

The diagnosis of CHD

Due to the risk factors for coronary heart disease described above, the diagnosis begins with an intensive discussion. Besides the risks, complaints are also documented. In addition, an assessment of the physical capacity of the patient.

This is followed by a physical check focusing on the legs, lungs, and heart. Possible signs of CHD include :

  • Cardiac malformations such as aortic valve stenosis
  • rattling breathing due to pulmonary congestion
  • heart failure

Weight, heart rate, blood pressure, and vascular status are also determined

Stents heart are small tubes that are suitable in arteries or ducts to keep them open when compromised. There are a variety of stents designed for various procedures and applications. Some of the procedures include the use of coronary, esophageal, ureteral and biliary stents. Most of them are made of stainless mesh and plastic steel; however, there are other stents that act as transplants and these are made from a special tissue. There are a number of common stents heart side effects that can occur and these could include clotting, calcification, bleeding, and pain.

There are two types of stent heart that are typically used: bare mesh stents and stents that have been coated with a drug. These are referred to as drug-eluting stents and are used to prevent the arteries from restarting. These devices are usually more effective and save lives; however, there are cases where patients experience negative results. Clinical studies using wire mesh stents in the cerebral arteries found that the stents caused strokes in patients. Stent Side Effects When performing procedures for coronary heart blockage can sometimes cause chest pain, swelling of the arms or legs, and bleeding from the puncture site on the groin.

Uretal stents placed to allow urine to travel unhindered from the kidney to the bladder, sometimes irritate the bladder and cause pain to the back and groin areas. They can be moved from the place and wandering in the bladder causing the patient to frequent urination and possibly cause blood to enter the urine. Physical activity can also cause the stent heart to move. Sometimes drug side effects can be lessened, and in most cases, they disappear when the stent is removed. Doctors recommend that patients with constant and severe pain or fever as a result of a stent should seek immediate medical attention.

stents-heart-side-effects

Patients with stents heart side effects of devices with medications sometimes present with blood clots, and in some cases allergic reactions to the stent itself coated. This is usually treated with medication; however, scarring at the site of the stent heart can be a common side effect. Medication-coated stents can also cause gastrointestinal bleeding, flu-like symptoms, chest pain, and strokes. Studies have shown that these symptoms and effects can also occur in nude mesh stents, yet appear to be more potent in medical devices. Although not as common, other stent side effects are lung disease and even cancer.

  • A stent heart is a supporting device introduced into the body.
  • While recovering from the surgery, patients need to be careful to sit upright while eating to ensure food goes through the stent.
  • Stents are used to keep blood vessels free of blockages.
  • Blood clotting, calcification, bleeding, and pain are among the possible side effects of using stents in coronary artery procedures.
  • Some stents heart side effects in the treatment of coronary blockages can cause chest pain.

Heart arrhythmia is a disorder characterized by an accelerated or severely slowed heartbeat. The change in heart rate is due to an increase or decrease in electrical activity in the heart muscle. Expansion of the heart is controlled by electrical signals or impulses from the brain. An interruption in the transmission of these electrical pulses may result in the suspension of a heartbeat. The values of a normal adult heartbeat are 60 to 100 beats per minute. If you have a heartbeat outside this area, talk to your doctor about it.

Arrhythmia is often a contraindication to sports.

When do you have to worry?

Benign arrhythmias manifest at the level of the atria (for example, atrial fibrillation) or the atrioventricular sinus. They do not lead to the death of the person. Malignant arrhythmias that can lead to death include tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation.

Causes of heart arrhythmia

Here are the main causes of irregular heartbeat and arrhythmias:

  • Coronary heart disease is a common cause of arrhythmia. It is a disorder in which the blood circulation in the coronary vessels is obstructed.
  • Stimulants such as smoking, alcohol abuse, drugs, and caffeine.
  • Abnormal sodium or potassium levels in the blood.
  • Some stomach disorders, such as a hiatus hernia or gastroesophageal reflux.
  • Stimulants in medicines for a cough and cold.
  • They can occur during convalescence after heart surgery.
  • Hypertension or high blood pressure.
  • Thyroid dysfunction or hyperthyroidism are less common causes of arrhythmias.
  • Myocardial damage or fibrosis of the heart due to myocardial infarction.
  • Diabetes and insulin.

Symptoms of heart arrhythmia

The symptoms of an irregular heartbeat are very vague. Sometimes the patient does not feel it at all. Patients with serious arrhythmias may have few symptoms, while others with significant symptoms may present a less severe condition.

Symptoms include:

  1. Intermittent chest pain or angina, the most common symptom of an irregular heartbeat
  2. Fast and irregular frequency, strong tapping of the heart
  3. Fainting or syncope
  4. Difficult breathing, especially under stress
  5. Excessive sweating
  6. Fear and restlessness
  7. General malaise
  8. Dizziness or dizziness
  9. Fatigue

Asymptomatic arrhythmia

The asymptomatic arrhythmia is not always harmless and may cause blood clotting in the heart and / or a reduction in the amount of blood being pumped.

Heart Arrhythmia At Night

Nocturnal irregular heartbeat can have various causes. The most common are :

  • Diabetes
  • Hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism)
  • high blood pressure or hypertension
  • Other heart diseases
  • Some medicines
  • Smoke
  • Stressful situations
  • Some natural remedies

Arrhythmia after eating

When we eat, a large amount of blood is diverted to the digestive tract. The body immediately responds to this situation and tries to maintain normal blood pressure by increasing the heart rate and narrowing certain arteries. If this mechanism does not work, postprandial hypotension may occur (drop in blood pressure after eating). Older people may have arrhythmias after eating. People who may experience cardiac arrhythmias after meals include those with high arterial blood pressure or Parkinson’s disease.

Causes and symptoms of the disorder can vary from person to person, possibilities are:

  1. Some people suffer from tachycardia only in certain situations, for example, at night in bed, after eating sweet foods or foods with a high sodium content, etc.
  2. Inadequate water intake, which thickens the blood and thus forces the heart to work to pump the blood.
  3. Dysfunction of an endocrine gland.
  4. Problems of the digestive system.
  5. Excessive enjoyment of coffee and other stimulants.
  6. Disorders of the vagus nerve.
  7. Hiatus hernia (diaphragmatic hernia).
  8. Gastroesophageal reflux.
  9. Liver or kidney disease.
  10. People with a rapid resting heartbeat may have arrhythmias after eating.

what-is-heart-arrhythmia

Atrial Fibrillation (AF)

Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of arrhythmia. In this disease, the heart beats irregularly and too fast. AF can be chronic, persistent or paroxysmal. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurs occasionally and temporarily, and is short-lived, from a few seconds to a few days.

Ventricular arrhythmia

This is a heart disorder in which the irregular rhythm of the heart and heartbeats come from the heart chambers. It can be divided into: ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bradycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Tachycardia means that the heart rate exceeds 100 beats per minute, while bradycardia is characterized by beats below 60 beats per minute. Ventricular fibrillation is a disease in which the heart beats quickly and irregularly. The result is a reduction of the pumped blood.

causes

  1. Drug side effects
  2. caffeine
  3. nicotine
  4. High sodium and potassium levels in the blood
  5. Necroses and fibroses of the heart muscle
  6. cardiomyopathy
  7. myocarditis
  8. Valvular heart disease
  9. Congenital heart disease

Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA)

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia refers to a change in heart rate that occurs during a natural breathing cycle. The vagus nerve is a cranial nerve that runs from the brain stem to the abdomen and plays an important role in the regulation of the heartbeat. It reduces the contraction force and the frequency of the heart. During inhalation and exhalation, cells of the medulla oblongata send a signal from the parasympathetic nervous system via this cranial nerve to the heart. This causes a cyclic variation of the heart rate. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is a physiological variant and is not considered abnormal. In fact, it is the loss of this normal reflex that signals a heart problem.

RSA is common in children and adolescents and usually goes away with self-growth. However, a doctor should be consulted on:

  1. Very fast and irregular heartbeat,
  2. Very slow heartbeat, 

Heart Arrhythmia in Children

What are the specific causes of heart arrhythmia in children?

  1. Congenital heart defect
  2. Side effect on medicines

Cardiac palpitations during pregnancy

What are the causes?

  1. Mental stress
  2. body changes
  3. Excessive caffeine consumption
  4. Physical stress
  5. anemia
  6. Lack of magnesium
  7. Side effects of drugs

Diagnostics and examination

Heart arrhythmia are diagnosed by listening to the stethoscope or by an electrocardiogram (ECG). For fetal arrhythmias, echocardiography is usually performed; in the 20th week of pregnancy usually a morphological ultrasound. If the gynecologist sees a congenital anomaly, he may request  chocardiography, as this examination is much more thorough.

Therapy of heart arrhythmia

In some arrhythmias, it does not require treatment, in other cases, rapid treatment must be used to prevent heart failure.

Possible treatments are:

Physical exercises

There are several physical exercises (physiokinesis therapy) that stimulate the stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system (the part of the nervous system that affects rest, digestion, energy recovery and recovery).

The techniques that affect the vagus nerve (vagal maneuvers) affect the parasympathetic nervous system and promote the health of the heart.

With regard to nutrition, stimulating foods, such as coffee and chocolate, are not recommended as they can affect the heart rate.

Treatment of the accelerated heartbeat

Cardioversion. If the tachycardia

About two out of three people survive a heart attack. For these patients, it is very important to avoid a second infarction because the chances of survival in a repeated infarction are significantly lower. Certain risk factors such as genetic predisposition, age or gender can not be changed – but there are a number of other factors that you can influence yourself to reduce the risk of a second heart attack.

Avoid Second Infarction: First Step is a Cure

Overall, about one third of heart attack patients suffer another infarction. The prognosis of a heart attack depends firstly on how badly the heart was damaged, but also on the behavior and lifestyle of those affected. The first important step after a cardiac arrest has passed is a cure for many patients – a so-called follow-up treatment. This type of rehabilitation should be followed directly by the hospital stay and usually takes three weeks. Studies show that rehabilitation improves the prognosis after a heart attack. In the follow-up treatment, which can also be performed on an outpatient basis, not only the medical treatment is continued and the physical performance is rebuilt, the patient is also informed about risk factors and educated on how he needs to change his lifestyle. Since this is often associated with the task of decades of habits, this is particularly difficult for many heart attack patients.

Take Medication Regularly and Stop Smoking

The most important factors to avoid a second heart attack include regular use of prescribed medications and abstinence from smoking. Only a consistent therapy can prevent a second heart attack. However, studies show that patient adherence diminishes approximately one year after the infarction. Five years after the infarct, only a part of the therapy continues consistently.

A second major contributing factor to the onset of another heart attack is smoking.

How-to-avoid-heart-attack

Healthy Lifestyle: Heart Sports, Nutrition and Relaxation

But even those who give up smoking and taking his medication regularly should also pay attention to a healthy lifestyle. This includes :

Regular exercise and moderate exercise are healthy for the heart – even after a heart attack. A good start after rehabilitation is offered by so-called heart sports groups, where you can train with other people under medical supervision. But regular exercise in everyday life is important, such as walking, cycling or gardening. In addition, heart sports can also boost confidence in one’s own body, which can help to reduce existing fears.

Overweight, high blood lipid levels and diabetes are risk factors for a heart attack that can be positively influenced by a healthy diet. Recommended for heart attack patients the so-called Mediterranean diet: This contains little meat and (animal) fat, but plenty of fruit and vegetables, regularly fish and in unsaturated fatty acids, such as those contained in olive and rapeseed oil.

Avoiding stress is also essential for heart attack patients if they want to avoid another heart attack. Researchers have shown that chronic stress can clog the arteries. In addition, stress can increase blood pressure, which also increases the risk of another heart attack. Heart attack patients should, therefore, look at how they can reduce stress in everyday life. It can also be helpful to learn certain techniques in stress management, such as autogenic training, progressive muscle relaxation, yoga or meditation.

Congenital heart disease is a heart defect, of innate origin. Basically, this pathology concerns the septa of the heart, affects the artery, which supplies venous blood to the lungs or one of the main vessels of the arterial system – the aorta, and also There is an increase in the botallov channel (OAP). In congenital heart disease, the blood movement in the large blood circulation (BPC) and small (ICC) is disturbed.

Heart defects are a term that combines certain heart diseases whose main benefit is a change in the anatomical structure of the heart valve device or its largest vessels and the growth of the partitions between the atria or ventricles.

Causes of congenital heart disease

The main causes of congenital heart disease are diseases from the chromosomes – it is almost 5%; Mutation of the gene (2-3%); various factors such as alcoholism and drug addiction of parents; Infectious diseases in the first trimester of pregnancy (rubella, hepatitis), medications (1-2%) and hereditary predisposition (90%).

With various distortions of chromosomes, their mutations appear in a quantitative and structural form. When aberrations of large or medium-sized chromosomes occur, this generally leads to a lethal outcome. But if there are biases in life compatibility then there are several types of congenital diseases. When a third chromosome appears in the set of chromosomes, defects arise between the valves of the valves of the atrial and ventricular septa or a combination of these.

Congenital heart disease with changes in the sex chromosomes is much rarer than in trisomy autosomes.

Mutations of a gene not only lead to congenital heart disease, but also to abnormalities of other organs. Developmental disorders of the CVS (cardiovascular system) are associated with the syndrome of autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive syndrome. These syndromes are characterized by a pattern of damage to the system in a mild or severe severity.

The development of congenital heart disease can contribute to various environmental factors that damage the cardiovascular system. Among them, X-ray radiation could be identified that a woman could receive during the first half of pregnancy; Radiation by ionized particles; some types of medicines; Infectious diseases and viral infections; Alcohol, drugs, etc. Therefore, heart disease formed under the influence of these factors has received the name of embryopathy.

Under the influence of alcohol, most commonly formed VSD (defect of the interventricular septum), OAP (open arterial duct), pathology of the interatrial septum. For example, anticonvulsants lead to the development of pulmonary artery stenosis and aorta, aortic coarctation, OAP.

Ethyl alcohol is the first of the toxic substances, contributing to congenital heart disease. A child born under the influence of alcohol has an embryophytic alcohol syndrome. Alcoholic mothers suffer from almost 40% of children with congenital heart disease. Alcohol is particularly dangerous in the first trimester of pregnancy – this is one of the most critical stages of fetal development.

Very dangerous for the future of the child is the fact that the pregnant woman suffered from rubella. This disease causes a number of pathologies. And the innate pathology of the heart is no exception. The incidence of congenital heart disease after rubella is between 1 and 2.4%. Among the heart diseases are the most common in practice: OAA, AVK, Fallot tetralogy, DMZHP, stenosis of the pulmonary artery.

The data from the experiments show that almost all congenital heart defects are basically of genetic origin, which is consistent with a multifactorial inheritance. Of course, there is heterozygosity of a genetic nature and some forms of UPU are associated with mutations of a gene.

In addition to the aetiological factors that cause congenital heart disease, there is also a risk group in which women fall into the age group; Have violations of the endocrine system; with toxicoses of the first three months of pregnancy; who have stillborn babies in the history, as well as already existing children with congenital heart defects.

congenital-heart-disease-symptoms

Congenital heart disease symptoms

The clinical picture of congenital heart disease is characterized by features of the structure of the defect, the recovery process and the complications resulting from a variety of etiologies. The symptoms of congenital heart disease include shortness of breath, which occurs in the context of low physical exertion, increased heart rate, periodic weakness, paleness or cyanosis of the face, pain in the heart, swelling and fainting.

Congenital heart defects can occur at regular intervals, so there are three major phases.

In the primary, adaptive phase, the patient’s body attempts to adapt to circulatory system disorders caused by a developmental defect. As a result, the symptoms of manifestation of the disease are usually not very pronounced. But during a severe hemodynamic injury, cardiac decompensation quickly develops. If patients with congenital heart disease do not die during

Sometimes we can recognize warning signs of our body in everyday things: the otherwise super-fitting elegant loafers have to be exchanged for extra-wide health shoes from the medical supply store? The responsible swollen feet can be the first symptom of right-sided heart failure, also called right heart failure. What is right heart failure in the body and how to recognize Right Heart Failure, read now.

Symptoms of Right Heart Failure

Simply put, in right heart failure, the right half of the heart is no longer working properly. This is often the result of advanced left heart failure. If the two forms come together, it is also called global heart failure. When it comes to the chronic form, the symptoms of heart failure can go unnoticed for a long time right. Common signs of right heart failure include:

  • Rapid weight gain and swollen ankles and feet indicate water retention in the tissues. If you press your finger on the thickened area, a dent remains that can last for several minutes.
  • Caution: A thrombosis (blood clot) can also cause swelling in the leg. In contrast to this disease, in case of right heart failure, however, both legs or feet are always swollen. A thrombosis must be treated immediately.

What happens with heart failure on the right?

Right heart failure is a weak pumping of the right half of the heart, which is responsible for the transport of oxygen-poor blood to the lungs. Normally, the right half of the heart works like this:

  1. Low-oxygen blood from the upper and lower half of the body flows into the right atrium.
  2. From the right atrium, the blood enters the right ventricle.
  3. The spent blood flows from the right ventricle into the lungs, where it is enriched with oxygen. This is called “small blood circulation”.

What-Is-Right-Heart-Failure

What happens if the right half of the heart is weakened?

This is simply explained: In right heart failure, more blood flows out of the systemic circulation than the impaired, right ventricle can carry on to the lungs. There is a backlog of spent blood in front of the right atrium, which can reach into the legs or neck. Sufferers suffer from swollen legs and thickened veins. In addition, this can increase the pressure in the veins so much that the liquid components of the blood are pressed into the surrounding tissue. This causes water retention (edema) in the feet, abdomen or other parts of the body.

Heart ablation is the term used by cardiac specialists for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias in which they deliberately obliterate pathological areas of the heart muscle tissue. Catheter ablation can permanently repair certain forms of cardiac arrhythmias. Beginnings of this treatment method exist since the eighties. Since then, technology has made tremendous progress. Today, numerous cardiology departments perform the procedure.

How does a catheter ablation work?

Understanding the principle of catheter ablation requires some basic knowledge of how the heart works: the heart consists of four heart cavities, two atria, and two main chambers. The beating of the heart is generated by electrical impulses that arise at a specific location in the right atrium. From this so-called sinus node, the electrical impulses spread over the atria and the atrioventricular node (AV node) on the heart chambers and cause the contraction of the heart muscle (conduction system see also graph).

what-is-a-heart-ablation

Insert the catheter into the right atrium for ablation. The conduction system is shown in yellow

If there are additional faulty pathways or sites in the myocardial tissue that trigger further excitement, there will be episodic or persistent irregular heartbeat. This can be treated by the so-called catheter ablation. Depending on the cause of the disease, the doctors either devour the starting point of the additional heartbeats or the abnormal pathways.

When will a catheter ablation be used?

For most forms of cardiac arrhythmia, the doctor will first try to treat them with medication. If this therapy fails, catheter ablation can permanently rid the patient of his symptoms in certain types of arrhythmia:

In Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW syndrome), there is a congenital pathway between the atria and the ventricles as a short circuit. About the short-circuit connection, the excitement reach the chambers prematurely. It comes to the attacking tachycardia. After catheter ablation, when the expert obliterates the extra pathway, cardiac arrhythmia has disappeared in over 95 percent of cases.

In AV node reentry tachycardia, the electrical impulses circulate in the AV node. This causes tachycardia. Catheter ablation is the treatment of choice for this common cardiac arrhythmia and is successful in more than 95 percent of cases.

In atrial tachycardia (“atrial tachycardia”), the electrical impulses do not emanate from the sinus node but from other locations in the right atrium. The chances of a successful catheter ablation are slightly lower in atrial tachycardia than in WPW syndrome and AV node reentry tachycardia.

In typical atrial flutter, there is also a circular excitement in the right atrium. As the cardiac arrhythmia can be permanently cured by the catheter ablation in 95 percent of cases, it is clearly superior to the drug therapy.

ECG

ECG curve for atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation can be caused by electrical impulses from the pulmonary veins. When atrial fibrillation causes discomfort such as shortness of breath or heart failure, doctors use catheter ablation to electrically isolate the pulmonary veins. As a result, the interfering impulses should no longer reach the forecourts. The procedure lasts several hours. So far, he has been successful in seizure-related atrial fibrillation in about 70 percent of cases. For chronic atrial fibrillation, the success rate is just over 50 percent. Therefore, catheter ablation is only used when medications can not normalize the heart rhythm. Often, the patient must continue to take medication after ablation. In some cases, the catheter ablation needs to be repeated.

Although isolation of the pulmonary veins is not possible, there is still the possibility of AV node ablation. By sclerosing the AV node, the atria and chambers of the heart are completely separated electrically. The patient then needs a pacemaker. Therefore, AV node ablation is only an emergency solution.

How does a catheter ablation work?

Catheter ablation is usually performed as part of an electrophysiological examination (EPU) in the hospital. The standard procedure is radiofrequency ablation. Their principle is that the catheter tip delivers heat to the tissue with pinpoint accuracy. Other ablation procedures work with cold (cryoablation).

The inpatient admission usually takes place the day before the procedure so that the medical history can be recorded, the reconnaissance interview conducted and necessary preliminary examinations can be made.

Catheter ablation is performed like a cardiac catheter or EPU under local anesthesia. The patient is conscious. If necessary, the doctor administers painkillers and sedatives. First, the doctor examines exactly the cardiac arrhythmias and their place of origin in the EPU. Then he sets in the heart tissue on the ablation catheter targeted small scars of a few millimeters, to prevent the emergence or transmission of cardiac arrhythmia. After the sclerotherapy,

Continuous lack of blood flow to parts of the heart muscle causes heart muscle cells to die in a heart attack. A heart attack – also called myocardial infarction – is therefore life-threatening. Popularly a heart attack is considered a typical male disease. That’s not quite true, yet the myth persists stubbornly. However, it is correct that a heart attack manifests itself in men with symptoms other than women. Also, the male seems more prone to a heart attack than the female.

Which heart attack symptoms show up in men?

Typically, men notice a heart attack from a sudden onset of chest pain – more specifically, on the left side of the chest and behind the sternum. This pain is characterized by a duration of at least five minutes. Not infrequently they radiate on the arms (especially on the left), the upper abdomen, the neck, the shoulder, the jaw or the back. Often this pain is accompanied by cold sweats, shortness of breath, restlessness, and anxiety, which can range to dread. Affected are also usually very pale. Typical is also a tightness or a feeling of pressure in the chest.

Attention: If you notice these symptoms to yourself or others, contact the emergency physician immediately. In a heart attack, every moment counts. Some sufferers often want to wait and see if things get better. But that can be a devastating mistake. It also shows that patients are repressing the infarction and do not want to believe that it hits them.

These symptoms are considered classic. However, there may be other symptoms that are often not immediately associated with those suffering from a heart attack. These include pain in the superstructure as well as nausea and vomiting. As a result, those affected confuse the heart attack with gastrointestinal complaints.

It is also possible that the typical pain in the chest is completely absent and only atypical symptoms express. In some patients, the symptoms are so weak that they do not even notice them. In these cases, one speaks of a silent heart attack.

On the other hand, one can recognize heart attacks already before their occurrence by certain signs. Since they are not symptoms of the infarction per se, it is called harbingers, which occur in 50 to 70 percent of all cases. Many heart attack patients, not infrequently unnoticed, suffer from the so-called coronary heart disease, in which the coronary vessels calcify and constrict. This process causes the heart muscle in the long-term is getting worse and worse. The result is a chest tightness experienced by the patients, which occurs during excitement or physical exertion. The technical name for this chest tightness is angina pectoris. If it occurs more often, or if the seizures continue longer or become more intense, a doctor should be contacted immediately as it may be a beginning heart attack.

The treachery of a myocardial infarction, however, is that he does not announce himself in up to 50 percent of all cases. Also, infarcts can be completely “mute”. This means that those affected do not realize that they have an infarct. However, this does not mean that these heart attacks are less dangerous than those that are immediately recognized.

How do these heart attack symptoms differ from those of a woman?

While myocardial infarction symptoms are associated with myocardial infarction relatively rapidly in men, the signs are often rather nonspecific in women. For example, women often complain of upper abdominal complaints, nausea and vomiting, and shortness of breath. Only a third of all women feel the typical symptoms. In addition, the characteristic pains in the chest are often very weak or rather appear in the form of a tightness or pressure in the chest area.

In view of these rather atypical pains, a heart attack in the female sex is usually recognized much later. Statistically, women arrive at the hospital about an hour later than men. The late detection of the heart attack is also the reason that women die more frequently from a myocardial infarction than men.

heart-attack-symptoms-in-men

Why are men more affected than women?

Even if the myth is not true that a heart attack is a male disease, it should be noted that it affects men more often. Researchers suggest that sex hormones have an impact on the risk of heart attack. Because the statistics show that women are much less likely to suffer from myocardial infarction before the menopause. After the menopause, however, also increases their risk. Therefore, it is now believed that the hormone estrogen is a natural protection factor for the heart.

In short:

  • Men usually have the classic heart attack symptoms such as long-lasting chest pain, tightness or pressure in the chest and anxiety
  • Men survive a heart attack more often than women because their symptoms are more typical and they tend to be hospitalized
  • Even men may have atypical heart attack symptoms or suffer a silent heart attack
  • Men are more likely to have an infarct at a young age than

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