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Ischemic heart disease. Ischemia is a decrease in blood supply to a body organ, tissue or partially arrested by constriction or blockage of the blood vessels, and it is the right medical term for reduced blood flow to the heart. Cured or blocked arteries usually cause us, and it is the leading cause of death in most Western countries. The growth of these tissues is called arteriosclerosis.

Atherosclerosis typically begins in early adolescence but is rarely diagnosed until late in life usually due to a stroke or heart attack. Autopsies of healthy young men who died during the Korean and Vietnam War showed signs of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment can stop the progression of atherosclerosis and prevent a medical emergency.

According to the United States data for 2004 for about 65% of men and 47% of women, the first symptom of atherosclerosis is a heart attack or sudden cardiac death (death within one hour after onset of symptoms) or obstruction of the arteries that cause the Brain as a result of a stroke.

Another problem that can cause ischemic heart disease is an aneurysm. It is a localized, pathological, blood-filled dilation of a blood vessel causing a weakling from the vascular wall. Plaque forms in the arteries causing it an obstacle and the blood flow around the constipation pressure on the walls of the arteries. This can cause the walls of the arteries to balloon out and weaken as the blood moves around the obstacle. If one of these balloons or aneurysms explodes then death can occur within minutes.

When the plaque is displaced from the arterial walls it will travel into the heart and cause one of the blood vessels of the heart to get blocked, causing a heart attack. If the plaque gets lodged in one of the blood vessels, the blood supply to the brain, then it becomes a stroke.

Ischemic is caused by a diet rich in fats and physical inactivity. A high-fat diet leads to high levels of cholesterol in the blood. The American Heart Association offers a range of guidelines for total blood cholesterol and heart disease risk. The desirable LDL is less than 100 mg/dl. However, the report from the National Cholesterol Education Program in 1987 suggesting that total blood cholesterol should be below 200 mg / dL of normal blood cholesterol when cholesterol levels between 200 and 239 mg / dL are considered borderline high, and higher than 240 mg/dl is considered high cholesterol.

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Many scientists, nutritionists, and activists are concerned about ischemic heart disease, and they are trying to educate the American people into a healthier diet. And this power of healthy suggestion seems to work on restaurants. Especially since 2004, fast food chains have begun to offer healthier menu options such as yogurt, salads, and fruits. Many restaurants now print some nutritional information on their menus and specifically offer heart-smart recipes.

Over-the-counter products and Vitamins are common and can help relieve heart diseases such as Pectin, Foti, Vitamin C, Niacin, and EPA. Foti also called He Shou Wu in China is legendary in his ability to extend life. Modern studies have shown that Foti has the ability to lower serum cholesterol, prevent premature gray hair, promote red cell growth, increase blood and longevity at the cellular level. This herb raises the level of naturally occurring antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the body. Foti can reduce blood cholesterol by inhibiting intestinal absorption, which helps to reduce atherosclerosis and other heart diseases.

Niacin is the next thing, a perfect treatment that corrects most causes of coronary heart disease. Niacin blocks the release of fatty acids from the fat cells. Niacin plays an important role in gene expression, energy production, and hormone synthesis. You can not live without it. Niacin also tends to alter LDL particle distribution to larger particle size and improve HDL functioning. The intake of 3 g of niacin for less than two weeks to reduce serum cholesterol by 26 percent.

Vitamin C has been shown to counteract the development of cholesterol deposits in the arteries. Within hours of receiving vitamin C patients showed a sharp decline in blood cholesterol.

Pectin limits the amount of cholesterol your body can absorb. High pectin in apples can count why “One day keeps the doctor away”.

Studies of Greenland Eskimo’s lack of heart attacks have shown that Eico Sapentaenoic Acid (EPA) lowers cholesterol significantly, even more than polyunsaturated fat. It also triggers a significant reduction in triglycerides. Salmon oil is one of the most famous natural EPA sources.

If you are at risk of heart disease then you will find a good health care professional before beginning any kind of home treatment.

Always ask your doctor before using this information, this article is nutritional in nature and is not considered medical advice.

Cardiomegaly is not a disease, but the symptom of a problem with the heart, which causes it to become enlarged. Your heart may become enlarged during pregnancy, or due to a condition that puts stress on the heart, such as coronary artery disease, prolapse or stenosis of one of the heart valves, or problems in the electrical heart rhythm. Occasionally the cause of an enlarged heart may not be known.

The symptoms of cardiomegaly are variable. In the early stages, no symptoms will be felt. Then, as the heart continues to grow, some people will not experience any symptoms at all, while others experience shortness of breath, dizziness, an abnormal heart rate, cough, chest pain or swelling in the feet. The symptoms may be caused by the condition that causes the heart to be enlarged. For example, if your heart valves have been damaged by rheumatic heart disease, you may notice an irregular heartbeat, also called an arrhythmia. Some cardiac arrhythmias cause shortness of breath and dizziness.

High blood pressure causes the heart to work harder to pump blood through the body. When the heart needs to beat faster or harder, the muscles thicken producing cardiomyopathy or stiffening of the heart muscle, which can lead to cardiomegaly over time.

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A heart attack, infections, connective tissue disorders, congenital heart disease, certain medications, and cancer radiation can all damage heart, producing enlargement. Pulmonary hypertension or high blood pressure in the lungs can increase the heart’s workload, causing the right side to be enlarged.

Iron deficiency anemia, resulting in a lack of red blood cells, produces a domino effect. If there are fewer red blood cells to transport oxygen, the heart must work harder to pump more blood to form the lack of oxygen. Over time, untreated anemia can lead to an enlarged heart. On the other hand, too much iron, or a problem with iron metabolism can put pressure on the left side of the heart, weakening the muscles and making balancing cardiomegaly.

Thyroid disorders, both a sluggish thyroid and an overactive thyroid can cause heart problems and cardiomegaly. A rare blood disorder called amyloidosis causes amyloids to build up abnormal proteins in the heart because of it’s an enlargement.

Cardiomegaly may be asymptomatic or very serious, depending on the underlying cause or heart disease. The aim of the treatment is to control the symptoms and reduce whatever damage is caused by the factors causing enlargement of the heart. Cardiomegaly cannot be cured, and usually can not be reversed, but it can be successfully treated and the symptoms controlled.

Diet plans, diet tips, and dieting techniques are wherever you look. Books, instructional videos, hypnosis books on tape, infomercials on television and advertising on the radio all claim to have the weight loss plan you’ve been looking for. Sources say a detoxifying or detoxifying juice diet can quickly lose weight; but what is it, is it safe and does it work?

Not a full-blown “Fast”

Typically the word “fast” means the participant will not always ingest any food or water, but detox juice diets allow both food and water. The food is allowed juices, so you need the nutrients you need to survive without having to lift your digestive system to lift a figurative finger.

Detox juice diets do not limit the amount of juice you can drink and highly recommend drinking large amounts of water so you never feel empty or hungry during the diet. If the plan you want to follow suggests any limitation on the amount of juice or water you take, consider looking for another plan.

It works?

If you are not just looking for a way to lose weight fast, but in the long term, the detox juice diet may not be the best option for you. Similar to other diet plans that restrict your intake of carbohydrates, this type of diet also. With carbohydrate restriction, you lose water in your system, making the number go down the scale (water weight) until you start to eat carbohydrates again.

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The restriction of carbohydrates makes the body go into ketosis, a condition where you burn fat stores for energy instead of carbohydrates. The process of ketosis can lead to an unpleasant odor from the pores, a property some will call proof it works out. The juice taken during a detox juice diet will prevent you from entering ketosis, but the same principle applies; The scale goes down, but it is water that is lost rather than fat.

Problems with it

If you decide to start on a detox diet plan, be aware of a few things that signal that you should consider taking a break from the plan. If you lose weight too fast, you will most certainly win again faster. A health-conscious, average weight loss is sure one to two pounds a week. Many detox diet plans do not provide important nutrients and result in losing electrolytes; Watch for tiredness, headache, nausea, and vomiting. All these symptoms are signs you need extra nutrients.

If your goal is to jump-start your diet and wellness plan, but then maybe a detox juice diet is a great option for you to consider for short-term use at startup. After the plan for a few days, you can give a boost and inspire you to continue your journey. But no matter what you decide, contact your doctor before going on any diet plan.

Walking is an easy way to burn extra calories, lose weight and reduce body fat. This low-impact exercise can lead to a significant amount of weight loss over time. The number of calories you burn depends on how fast you go, how many miles you go and how much you weigh. The persistent and vigorous foot can lead to weight loss of more than 20 pounds in just five months.

Gauging Calorie Depletion

One way to estimate your calorie reduction is by using a calorie calculator. This tool can be viewed online and is used to estimate energy consumption by weight. To figure out how many calories you have burned at a calorie calculator, enter in your weight, the number of hours/minutes went and the intensity of your workout.

Recommended calorie depletion and intake

To lose weight, according to the Mayo Clinic, you need to burn more calories than you consume. A pound is 3,500 calories, so a pound a week would have to go away to lose 500 calories a day. For a 135-pound woman, this means walking 1 hour and 10 minutes a day to burn one pound a week. For a 200-pound person, walk about 50 minutes a day every day of the week and you will lose a pound. A person who has a heavier weight burns more calories than a person who is lighter.

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Your body needs at least 1200 calories a day to work, according to most health organizations, so make sure you do not fall below this amount, otherwise, your body will go into starvation mode and slow down the metabolism.

How many miles you should go for Weight Loss

For optimal weight loss, walk 4 miles per hour. A jog starts at about 5 miles per hour, so you should run between four and five miles an hour. This corresponds to a 15-minute mile. If you are looking to lose one pound a week, individuals less than 140 pounds should walk more than four miles on foot, and individuals over 140 pounds should go between 3.5 and four miles a day (every day).

Achieve Goals Weight loss

If you aim to lose 20 pounds, walk three to six miles each day for five months to get to your fitness goal. Shorter amounts of walking, like 30 minutes will improve your health but are unlikely to lead to a significant decrease in weight loss in a short time. If time is a topic, split your walks to 15-minute intervals four to six times a day. The faster and more often you go, the faster you will achieve your weight loss goals.

The American Dietetic Association says that a low-fat diet helps people achieve and maintain weight loss goals and improve health. Weight loss and a low-fat diet with exercise help people reduce their risks of developing heart disease, stroke, certain cancers, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes. When people reduce the amount of fat consumed, they replace fats with nutritious, satiety. The American Dietetic Association says that although the weight loss and low-fat diet go hand in hand, people still need to consume healthy fats.

Low-Fat Diets and Weight Loss Programs

The Vanderbilt University Department of Psychology states that weight loss programs like Jenny Craig, Weight Watchers, Pritikin, and Ornish are low-fat diets. These diets help people lose unwanted pounds by limiting the amount of fat consumed. Fruits and vegetables take the place of fatty foods because of their nutritional value. People follow personalized menus, outlining what foods to eat and disheartening scams. Customers choose from a food list to make sure they get their daily diet. Dieters learn to choose healthy foods and build their own daily meal plans.

How to Low Fat Diet Help with Weight Loss

Weight loss and low-fat diet work together to reduce pounds, as lower high-fat foods contain fewer calories than more fatty foods. Vanderbilt University has found that because low-fat foods are less dense, people can eat more of them and feel full faster. This helps dieters lose weight and get healthy weights. For weight loss, people should consume less than 30 percent of their calories from fat.

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Low-fat diet and obesity-related diseases

People undertake low-fat diets to lose weight and reduce their risks of developing obesity disorder such as high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and high cholesterol. These conditions occur because of excess fat storage in the body. Foods eaten on a low-fat diet, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, contain vitamins, minerals, and fiber to combat the conditions associated with obesity.

Low Fat does not mean No Fat

Although low-fat diets promote weight loss, people still need healthy fats for the body to function properly. McKinley Health Center states that fat helps the body grow and develop, serves as an energy source, absorbs vitamins, cushions organs and maintains cell membranes. Replace saturated fats and trans fats with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. Foods that are good fats include salmon and other fatty fish, trout, herring, tuna, mackerel, nuts, seeds, and avocados.

Exercise

Exercise plays an important role in supporting weight loss on a low-fat diet. Exercise regularly burns excess fat and calories effectively when combined with a low-fat diet. Overweight and sedentary people start with simple activities such as 30 minutes of physical activity a day, such as walking and low-impact aerobics.

A low-fat diet program for high cholesterol is concerned about consuming a variety of low-fat, heart-healthy foods as propagated by the American Heart Association (AHA). These foods can help remove harmful cholesterol from the body. In addition to eating the most beneficial foods, they need you to be prepared in a healthy manner to get optimal results. Plus, no heart-healthy diet completely without exercise, a known cholesterol-lowering factor.

Heart-healthy foods

Eat heart-healthy food. Be in accordance with the AHA, heart-healthy foods are high in fiber, low in fat and high in antioxidants. These heart-healthy foods can increase your “bad” cholesterol level (LDL) as well as decrease your “good” cholesterol level (HDL). Soluble fiber helps remove harmful cholesterol from the body.

Eat soluble fiber foods. Notable sources of soluble fiber include whole grains, lentils and beans, nuts and seeds, fruits and vegetables, and healthy oils of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated varieties. The USDA recommends eating at least 10g of soluble fiber daily to lower your LDL.

Eat oatmeal. A 1 1/2 cup serving of oatmeal, it says in the Mayo Clinic, contains 6 grams of soluble fiber. In fresh fruit and increase soluble fiber of 4 g. Top with cinnamon and low-fat milk to start your low-fat diet for high cholesterol day nutritiously.

Eat plant sterol foods as part of your low-fat diet for high cholesterol. Plant sterols contain a strong lowering of the cholesterol property along with many beneficial antioxidants. According to the American Dietetic Association, herbal sterols are notable in low-fat soy products such as tofu, tempeh, soy and soy milk; walnuts; avocados; Linseed and sunflower seeds. You can also buy foods fortified with plant sterols such as orange juice, margarine and fruit smoothies.

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Not Heart Healthy Foods

Watch out for saturated and trans fats. Foods containing these fats, according to the Mayo Clinic and USDA, can increase your “bad” cholesterol levels.

Saturated fats are found in animal products such as offal and whole-fat dairy products, including egg yolks and red meats. These fats are also found in fried foods, processed and prepackaged foods, biscuits, bread, and many fast foods.

Food Preparation Methods

Choose heart-healthy cooking methods. According to the AHA and the USDA, if your food is made in an unhealthy method, such as deep frying, it can increase your LDL level. Healthy Cooking Methods to choose high cholesterol from your low-fat diet include steaming, grilling, poaching, and baking (without excessive oils).

Physical activity

Exercise. Your low-fat high-cholesterol diet must also include daily physical activity, according to the AHA. It is recommended to have 30 minutes daily for at least five days a week. The exercise does not have to be exhausting for you to reap health benefits. Physical activity can lower your LDL. Choose activities that you are happy with and switch to avoid boredom.

Can Spirulina help you lose weight?

This is certainly a question that lots of individuals ask, and the answer is absolutely YES! Spirulina can help with weight loss. Remember, spirulina is not a fad, a magic diet pill, or any type of instant weight loss formula. Spirulina is an all-natural source of protein, natural vitamins, essential minerals, and essential fatty acids. It can help your body become more healthy, natural and easy.

In the Western world, our diets hardly contain the fuel our body needs for optimal health. Fast, processed foods do not contain any of the natural goodness that was once found in regular, regular diets years ago. Our body needs help with getting everything they need to do their best. A healthy body will lose fat easily, as it has everything to do well. A fast metabolism, combined with high protein intake, will help tremendously when losing weight. This is where spirulina can help. It contains so many vitamins, minerals and vital substances our body needs, all in one substance. That’s why Spirulina is nicknamed “Nature’s Wonder Food”. There is nothing comparable!

Many people who support spirulina with weight loss take spirulina powder or a tablet one hour before they sit down to eat a meal. The high protein levels of spirulina slow their digestion, lighten their appetite, and help them feel less hungry. We all know, the less you eat, the more you will lose! Combined with regular daily exercise and a healthy and balanced diet, Spirulina can help you achieve your weight loss goals sooner!

Without doubt one of the best known and talked about Spirulina benefits, it’s natural ability to help and support weight loss. While Spirulina has weight loss benefits, Spirulina itself does not burn fat directly but it does not naturally support the body in many different ways. When combined with a healthy eating plan and regular exercise, it is highly effective and beneficial for your body to take full advantage of spirulina benefits when following a weight loss plan. Let us explore some of the different ways Spirulina weight loss benefits.

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  1. High in protein

Spirulina is among the finest sources of protein that available. It contains far more protein than other sources such as meat, soybeans, and corn. A longer sense of satiety is the effect of a high-protein diet that you will feel. Most people have heard of ‘low GI’ foods. They are foods that help to digest your body longer, help you stay away from snacks and treat high-sugar when you feel hungry. You can see how and why Spirulina weight loss benefits. Even a high protein diet leads to a faster metabolism. This means that you burn the calories you eat faster, allowing you to make your diet and exercise program more efficient. You will see and notice great weight loss results!

  1. Essential vitamins and minerals

No wonder, they call it Natures Great Food. Spirulina contains many essential vitamins and minerals required for good health and is a premier source of essential omega-3 fatty acids that can also boost brain function. While a healthy diet and a regular maintain exercise routine benefits from giving your body a boost, Spirulina weight loss, of course.

Spirulina can help you in giving your body exactly what it needs, of course. There is no other natural source quite like it, and no one can match pretty much all of spirulina’s health benefits. Whether you want to lose weight, or just want to do a favor for your body, and give it all the nutrients and vitamins it needs, enjoying these Spirulina benefits will speed you up in the fast lane for good health.

In a world of weight loss supplements, high protein shakes, loss magic weight pills and diets, spirulina differs from them all because it is a natural substance, not a man-made invention. You can be sure that spirulina is a healthy weight loss option.

Known as Ginkgo biloba ginkgo or its scientific name for which we have a hugely popular shrub in many Asian countries where it has a leading position in traditional medicine. It is a tree in China and Japan and has more than 200 million years old. It is also known by the curious name of the tree forty or shields as a tree of pagodas.

Anyway, its name derives from the Chinese word yah-chio which means just because of the strange shape “duck go” to present the leaves of this tree very much reminiscent of the appearance represented by the leg of the animal. Later in Japanese word, this name became “ginkgo” And eventually “Yin Kuo” which means “golden apricot”. It is scientifically known as Ginkgo biloba L. and belongs to the Ginkgoaceae family.

There is no doubt that we are facing a very strong tree. And it is that the only survivor, apart from the fact that geologically absolutely all climatic changes, as occurred on Earth, appears to have resisted the various most serious contaminants of the twentieth century.

The Benefits Of Ginkgo Biloba

Good for the circulation

The action of this tree seems to be directly related to the synergies between the various compounds, is particularly effective in alleviating circulatory disorders, since it is known that the active ingredients expand veins, arteries, and capillaries and improve microcirculation and the viscoelasticity of the blood, which prevents the formation of blood clots. Therefore, it will be an excellent preventive against the formation of blood clots.

This quality is found by the presence of flavonoids, which exert an effect on the vasodilatation different walls of both arteries and capillaries. In turn, platelets also prevent sedimentation in the interior of blood vessels.

The ginkgo is ideal for poor circulation in the legs, which can cause excessive fatigue and pain. In fact, some studies have found that a regular basis for this treatment facility in relieving circulatory disease is useful primarily to affect the legs.

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Relieves tired legs

Poor blood circulation in the legs affects the appearance of annoying and uncomfortable tiredness, which is usually known by the name of tired legs. In this sense, ginkgo extract is useful for relieving tired legs due to poor circulation.

Excellent for memory and learning

In addition, studies have shown that ginkgo has a positive effect on the forces of learning and memory, increasing cerebral blood flow and oxygen and important nutrients. Therefore, it is very useful to improve behavior and improve learning.

We recommend that you read: How to feed your memory?

In addition, it is particularly recommended for the treatment of memory impairment and impairment of cognitive functions (in the context of aging). This quality is found by the presence of a component known as bilobalide, and which acts as cerebral protection against senile dementia.

It reduces the discomfort of the PMS

If you suffer from premenstrual syndrome every month, opt for Ginkgo biloba as a natural treatment. And it is that positive by acting as a vasodilator in helping to reduce menstrual cramps.

Relieves depression in the elderly

It is common for many older people to suffer from depression as a result of poor circulation in the brain. Because ginkgo particularly improves blood circulation in some parts of the brain, increased blood supply to the cells that occur in this important and vital organ of our body improve depressive processes.

In short: properties of ginkgo

  • Recommended memory issues during treatment.
  • Useful in the treatment of disorders of cognitive functions.
  • Positive effect on learning and memory.
  • Relieves circulatory disorders.
  • Extends the veins, arteries, and capillaries.
  • Improves both the microcirculation and viscoelasticity of blood.
  • Prevents clot formation.

To consider contraindications of ginkgo

Ginkgo, like any other medicinal herb, has a number of contraindications that should always be considered before consumption. The most important are:

  • Consumption of blood thinning drugs: Since the ginkgo has a vasodilator, its consumption is not recommended for people receiving medical treatment based on anticoagulants.
  • Pregnancy and lactation: Consumption during pregnancy can lead to premature birth or heavy bleeding during childbirth. On the other hand, it is not recommended during breastfeeding because they have not proven their safety.
  • Before the operation: just because of its vasodilator effect, not consumption is recommended when surgery is due.

How to take ginkgo?

You can take ginkgo capsules or drops. Both products are given to herbalists and nutrition shops. Yes, it is advisable to follow the doses given on the packaging, as increased consumption of the recommended amounts may cause nervousness, vomiting, diarrhea and sleep disturbances.

In addition, it is common for Ginkgo biloba to cause headaches in the first few days after treatment. However, these symptoms tend to disappear gradually.

During an endoscopy, the doctor inserts a probe and optics into a body cavity. Depending on the region, for example, there are lung, stomach, intestinal or abdominal reflections.

Endoscopes are rigid or flexible depending on the cavity

Depending on the body region, either rigid probes or flexible tubes are suitable as endoscopes. The optics at the top can in the simplest case consist of a mirror as in the indirect laryngoscope reflection. Often these days, however, these are high-quality miniature cameras that transmit the image to a monitor in real time during the procedure.

There are types of endoscopy in which the doctor introduces the endoscope through a natural body opening: he can control the larynx, lungs, and stomach via the nose or mouth, the large intestine via the anal opening, the bladder via the urethra. Other types of endoscopy require small cuts in the skin to reach the area. Examples include joints or the abdominal cavity.

Interventions by endoscopic tools possible

An endoscopy is not only for the examination, but the doctors can also perform interventions: In tube-like endoscopes, they introduce tools such as pliers and milling directly through the tube. In the context of joint reflections and laparoscopy, the doctor creates a skin incision second or third access, in order to use his tools effectively. Physicians can use a bronchoscope to flush the lungs, a so-called bronchial lavage, and then aspirate the liquid used again.

The procedures in detail:

  1. Laryngoscopy (laryngoscopy)

The doctors distinguish between indirect and direct laryngoscopy. In indirect laryngoscopy, the doctor holds a small mirror and style in the pharynx while the patient is awake. In this way, he can look at the vocal folds. The direct laryngoscopy, the doctor can perform only in an unconscious or anesthetized patient. Depending on the project, he uses either intubation or a surgical laryngoscope. The spatula-shaped intubation laryngoscope is used for the correct placement of a breathing tube. With the tubular surgery laryngoscope, the doctor performs interventions on the larynx.

  1. Lung reflection (bronchoscopy)

If x-ray and computed tomography of the lungs do not provide sufficient information, pulmonary mirroring is a possible diagnostic method. It also plays a role in the treatment, for example, to extract viscous mucus. During lung reflection, the doctor inserts the endoscope over his nose or mouth. This endoscope consists of a soft, flexible tube with two to six millimeters in diameter. At the top of the hose sits a camera with the light source.

  1. Gastroscopy (gastroscopy or esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy)

A gastroscopy is a method of examination, with the help of which complaints of the esophagus (esophagus), the stomach (Gaster) and the duodenum (duodenum) can be clarified. The gastroscope used in this case is an optical device in the form of a flexible plastic tube. In addition to the camera and the light source, the hose also has additional working channels. Using these channels, for example, the doctor can take tissue samples with pliers, so-called biopsies. He can also spray on the gastroscope dyes on the mucous membranes to make changes more visible. If the doctor also injects contrast medium from the duodenum into the bile ducts and the pancreatic duct and then makes an X-ray, the procedure is called ERCP. This abbreviation stands for Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography).

  1. Laparoscopy

During the laparoscopy, the doctor inserts a tubular endoscope into the abdominal or pelvic cavity through the abdominal wall to assess the internal organs. In addition to the diagnosis, laparoscopic surgery is also possible in the same procedure. In contrast to an open surgery on the abdomen, the so-called laparotomy, only a few small incisions are necessary for procedures with the laparoscope. Through these small cuts, the doctor can bring both the endoscope and the surgical equipment in the abdominal cavity. Because of the small access, one also speaks of keyhole surgery.

  1. Small intestinal reflection (capsule endoscopy)

The small intestine is difficult to reach by tube. Therefore, there is a special form of endoscopy with the help of a camera capsule. This capsule is only about 2.5 inches long and has a diameter of just over one centimeter. The patient ingests the capsule, which then passes naturally through the gastrointestinal tract. Meanwhile, she sparks photos outside. These images record a receiver worn by the patient during the examination. The patient can, therefore, move freely during the examination. Subsequently, a trained doctor evaluates the automatically recorded images. Capsule endoscopy is used primarily when it comes to the question of bleeding in the small intestine or chronic inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease).

  1. Colonoscopy (colonoscopy)

A colonoscopy reveals various diseases on the colon (colon) and at the end of the small intestine (terminal ileum). In addition, it is a very reliable method to detect colon cancer and its precursors. The precursors are benign mucosal growths and are called polyps. The doctor can also remove these polyps by means of colonoscopy. To prepare for the exam, the patient

The doctor can use the bronchoscope to examine the lungs and airways. In addition, the method helps in the treatment, for example, to extract viscous mucus. During lung reflection, the doctor introduces a bronchoscope into the airway via the mouth or nose. Modern bronchoscopes consist of a soft, flexible tube with a diameter of two to six millimeters. At the top of the tube sits a camera with the light source. This camera sends its images in real time to a monitor on which the doctor examines the patient’s airways.

In addition, the bronchoscope can inject and aspirate liquid and thereby perform a so-called bronchial lavage. In addition, very small pliers or brushes can be advanced through the tube and tissue samples taken. These biopsy specimens will be examined later by the doctor under a microscope. In addition, a miniature ultrasound head can image the environment of the airways.

For what reasons does the doctor perform a bronchoscopy?

A bronchoscopy may be necessary for both treatment and diagnosis, for example, if there is suspicion of lung cancer in the room or if treatment is to be scheduled for a known lung tumor. Doctors can also use this method to introduce radioactive substances into the lungs in order to irradiate tumors locally. Restrictions of the respiratory tract can be clarified by bronchoscopy. Similarly, the doctor can investigate reduced ventilation of partial areas of the lung, so-called atelectasis. With the lung reflection and bronchial lavage cells and germs can also be extracted from the lungs.

Doctors also use lung plasmas to look for and remove foreign bodies. In ventilated patients, the position of the breathing tube can also be corrected with it. In addition, secretions such as mucus plugs can be washed away with the bronchoscope and inserted so-called stents, which seemed to the airways from the inside and keep them open.

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How is an examination with the bronchoscope going?

On the day of the examination, the patient comes sober. He receives a spray that stuns the throat and suppresses the gagging. Then, the patient is virtually always injected with a short narcotic into the vein, so that he feels nothing at all from the examination. If necessary, sedatives are also used.

The doctor introduces the bronchoscope through the mouth or nose into the trachea. Afterward, he examines the mucous membrane of the airways, which can be imagined as a “bronchial tree” with more and more ramifications. The doctor examines all bronchi to a maximum of the third or fourth diversion. This usually takes 10 to 15 minutes. The airways themselves are insensitive to pain.

If a bronchial lavage is needed, the doctor injects about 20-100 milliliters of sterile fluid into the lower respiratory tract and then sucks it off. It extracts bacteria and cells from the surface of the respiratory tract and subsequently examines them in the laboratory.

After the examination, the patient should abstain from eating and drinking for about two hours until the anesthetic of the throat has subsided. Otherwise, there is a risk of swallowing. If the patient has been given tranquilizers or anesthesia, they are not allowed to drive the same day.

What other types of bronchoscopy are there?

In addition to the lung reflection with a flexible tube, there is still the investigation with a rigid tube. This tube can, for example, better remove foreign matter from the lungs. Even if a tumor severely restricts the airways, rigid bronchoscopy has advantages. Sometimes the doctor can remove tumors directly using laser devices or argon bombers. Argon beamer is coagulation devices that transfer energy via argon gas and soil the tissue two to three millimeters deep. The doctor uses them to destroy tissue and stop bleeding. If he has to use stents to stretch a constriction, it works better with the rigid bronchoscope.

Is a bronchoscopy dangerous?

The bronchoscope may cause nosebleeds or sore throat with difficulty swallowing, hoarseness or coughing, and very rarely injure the larynx. Even short-term fever sometimes occurs afterwards, especially in lavages. Severe incidents are very rare in bronchoscopy.

Removing the tissue samples may cause slight bleeding. Therefore, one should expect in the first two days that you abhustet blood to a small extent. Every now and then, the bleeding is so severe that they have to be breastfed by the endoscope.

In some cases, injury to the alveoli causes the lungs to leak and form a so-called pneumothorax. This means that air flows into space between the lungs and the surrounding lung cavity and causes the feeling of being short of air. Then, if necessary, the application of a chest tube is necessary: This plastic tube through the chest wall conveys the infiltrated air to the outside.

bronchoscope-to-examine-the-lungs

Possible exclusion reasons

Bronchoscopy can be problematic in generally very poor condition or serious comorbidities: If a heart failure or an acute