Cardiomegaly is not a disease, but the symptom of a problem with the heart, which causes it to become enlarged. Your heart may become enlarged during pregnancy, or due to a condition that puts stress on the heart, such as coronary artery disease, prolapse or stenosis of one of the heart valves, or problems in the electrical heart rhythm. Occasionally the cause of an enlarged heart may not be known.

The symptoms of cardiomegaly are variable. In the early stages, no symptoms will be felt. Then, as the heart continues to grow, some people will not experience any symptoms at all, while others experience shortness of breath, dizziness, an abnormal heart rate, cough, chest pain or swelling in the feet. The symptoms may be caused by the condition that causes the heart to be enlarged. For example, if your heart valves have been damaged by rheumatic heart disease, you may notice an irregular heartbeat, also called an arrhythmia. Some cardiac arrhythmias cause shortness of breath and dizziness.

High blood pressure causes the heart to work harder to pump blood through the body. When the heart needs to beat faster or harder, the muscles thicken producing cardiomyopathy or stiffening of the heart muscle, which can lead to cardiomegaly over time.

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A heart attack, infections, connective tissue disorders, congenital heart disease, certain medications, and cancer radiation can all damage heart, producing enlargement. Pulmonary hypertension or high blood pressure in the lungs can increase the heart’s workload, causing the right side to be enlarged.

Iron deficiency anemia, resulting in a lack of red blood cells, produces a domino effect. If there are fewer red blood cells to transport oxygen, the heart must work harder to pump more blood to form the lack of oxygen. Over time, untreated anemia can lead to an enlarged heart. On the other hand, too much iron, or a problem with iron metabolism can put pressure on the left side of the heart, weakening the muscles and making balancing cardiomegaly.

Thyroid disorders, both a sluggish thyroid and an overactive thyroid can cause heart problems and cardiomegaly. A rare blood disorder called amyloidosis causes amyloids to build up abnormal proteins in the heart because of it’s an enlargement.

Cardiomegaly may be asymptomatic or very serious, depending on the underlying cause or heart disease. The aim of the treatment is to control the symptoms and reduce whatever damage is caused by the factors causing enlargement of the heart. Cardiomegaly cannot be cured, and usually can not be reversed, but it can be successfully treated and the symptoms controlled.

Heart arrhythmia is a disorder characterized by an accelerated or severely slowed heartbeat. The change in heart rate is due to an increase or decrease in electrical activity in the heart muscle. Expansion of the heart is controlled by electrical signals or impulses from the brain. An interruption in the transmission of these electrical pulses may result in the suspension of a heartbeat. The values of a normal adult heartbeat are 60 to 100 beats per minute. If you have a heartbeat outside this area, talk to your doctor about it.

Arrhythmia is often a contraindication to sports.

When do you have to worry?

Benign arrhythmias manifest at the level of the atria (for example, atrial fibrillation) or the atrioventricular sinus. They do not lead to the death of the person. Malignant arrhythmias that can lead to death include tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation.

Causes of heart arrhythmia

Here are the main causes of irregular heartbeat and arrhythmias:

  • Coronary heart disease is a common cause of arrhythmia. It is a disorder in which the blood circulation in the coronary vessels is obstructed.
  • Stimulants such as smoking, alcohol abuse, drugs, and caffeine.
  • Abnormal sodium or potassium levels in the blood.
  • Some stomach disorders, such as a hiatus hernia or gastroesophageal reflux.
  • Stimulants in medicines for a cough and cold.
  • They can occur during convalescence after heart surgery.
  • Hypertension or high blood pressure.
  • Thyroid dysfunction or hyperthyroidism are less common causes of arrhythmias.
  • Myocardial damage or fibrosis of the heart due to myocardial infarction.
  • Diabetes and insulin.

Symptoms of heart arrhythmia

The symptoms of an irregular heartbeat are very vague. Sometimes the patient does not feel it at all. Patients with serious arrhythmias may have few symptoms, while others with significant symptoms may present a less severe condition.

Symptoms include:

  1. Intermittent chest pain or angina, the most common symptom of an irregular heartbeat
  2. Fast and irregular frequency, strong tapping of the heart
  3. Fainting or syncope
  4. Difficult breathing, especially under stress
  5. Excessive sweating
  6. Fear and restlessness
  7. General malaise
  8. Dizziness or dizziness
  9. Fatigue

Asymptomatic arrhythmia

The asymptomatic arrhythmia is not always harmless and may cause blood clotting in the heart and / or a reduction in the amount of blood being pumped.

Heart Arrhythmia At Night

Nocturnal irregular heartbeat can have various causes. The most common are :

  • Diabetes
  • Hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism)
  • high blood pressure or hypertension
  • Other heart diseases
  • Some medicines
  • Smoke
  • Stressful situations
  • Some natural remedies

Arrhythmia after eating

When we eat, a large amount of blood is diverted to the digestive tract. The body immediately responds to this situation and tries to maintain normal blood pressure by increasing the heart rate and narrowing certain arteries. If this mechanism does not work, postprandial hypotension may occur (drop in blood pressure after eating). Older people may have arrhythmias after eating. People who may experience cardiac arrhythmias after meals include those with high arterial blood pressure or Parkinson’s disease.

Causes and symptoms of the disorder can vary from person to person, possibilities are:

  1. Some people suffer from tachycardia only in certain situations, for example, at night in bed, after eating sweet foods or foods with a high sodium content, etc.
  2. Inadequate water intake, which thickens the blood and thus forces the heart to work to pump the blood.
  3. Dysfunction of an endocrine gland.
  4. Problems of the digestive system.
  5. Excessive enjoyment of coffee and other stimulants.
  6. Disorders of the vagus nerve.
  7. Hiatus hernia (diaphragmatic hernia).
  8. Gastroesophageal reflux.
  9. Liver or kidney disease.
  10. People with a rapid resting heartbeat may have arrhythmias after eating.

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Atrial Fibrillation (AF)

Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of arrhythmia. In this disease, the heart beats irregularly and too fast. AF can be chronic, persistent or paroxysmal. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurs occasionally and temporarily, and is short-lived, from a few seconds to a few days.

Ventricular arrhythmia

This is a heart disorder in which the irregular rhythm of the heart and heartbeats come from the heart chambers. It can be divided into: ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bradycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Tachycardia means that the heart rate exceeds 100 beats per minute, while bradycardia is characterized by beats below 60 beats per minute. Ventricular fibrillation is a disease in which the heart beats quickly and irregularly. The result is a reduction of the pumped blood.

causes

  1. Drug side effects
  2. caffeine
  3. nicotine
  4. High sodium and potassium levels in the blood
  5. Necroses and fibroses of the heart muscle
  6. cardiomyopathy
  7. myocarditis
  8. Valvular heart disease
  9. Congenital heart disease

Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA)

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia refers to a change in heart rate that occurs during a natural breathing cycle. The vagus nerve is a cranial nerve that runs from the brain stem to the abdomen and plays an important role in the regulation of the heartbeat. It reduces the contraction force and the frequency of the heart. During inhalation and exhalation, cells of the medulla oblongata send a signal from the parasympathetic nervous system via this cranial nerve to the heart. This causes a cyclic variation of the heart rate. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is a physiological variant and is not considered abnormal. In fact, it is the loss of this normal reflex that signals a heart problem.

RSA is common in children and adolescents and usually goes away with self-growth. However, a doctor should be consulted on:

  1. Very fast and irregular heartbeat,
  2. Very slow heartbeat, 

Heart Arrhythmia in Children

What are the specific causes of heart arrhythmia in children?

  1. Congenital heart defect
  2. Side effect on medicines

Cardiac palpitations during pregnancy

What are the causes?

  1. Mental stress
  2. body changes
  3. Excessive caffeine consumption
  4. Physical stress
  5. anemia
  6. Lack of magnesium
  7. Side effects of drugs

Diagnostics and examination

Heart arrhythmia are diagnosed by listening to the stethoscope or by an electrocardiogram (ECG). For fetal arrhythmias, echocardiography is usually performed; in the 20th week of pregnancy usually a morphological ultrasound. If the gynecologist sees a congenital anomaly, he may request  chocardiography, as this examination is much more thorough.

Therapy of heart arrhythmia

In some arrhythmias, it does not require treatment, in other cases, rapid treatment must be used to prevent heart failure.

Possible treatments are:

Physical exercises

There are several physical exercises (physiokinesis therapy) that stimulate the stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system (the part of the nervous system that affects rest, digestion, energy recovery and recovery).

The techniques that affect the vagus nerve (vagal maneuvers) affect the parasympathetic nervous system and promote the health of the heart.

With regard to nutrition, stimulating foods, such as coffee and chocolate, are not recommended as they can affect the heart rate.

Treatment of the accelerated heartbeat

Cardioversion. If the tachycardia

Congenital heart disease is a heart defect, of innate origin. Basically, this pathology concerns the septa of the heart, affects the artery, which supplies venous blood to the lungs or one of the main vessels of the arterial system – the aorta, and also There is an increase in the botallov channel (OAP). In congenital heart disease, the blood movement in the large blood circulation (BPC) and small (ICC) is disturbed.

Heart defects are a term that combines certain heart diseases whose main benefit is a change in the anatomical structure of the heart valve device or its largest vessels and the growth of the partitions between the atria or ventricles.

Causes of congenital heart disease

The main causes of congenital heart disease are diseases from the chromosomes – it is almost 5%; Mutation of the gene (2-3%); various factors such as alcoholism and drug addiction of parents; Infectious diseases in the first trimester of pregnancy (rubella, hepatitis), medications (1-2%) and hereditary predisposition (90%).

With various distortions of chromosomes, their mutations appear in a quantitative and structural form. When aberrations of large or medium-sized chromosomes occur, this generally leads to a lethal outcome. But if there are biases in life compatibility then there are several types of congenital diseases. When a third chromosome appears in the set of chromosomes, defects arise between the valves of the valves of the atrial and ventricular septa or a combination of these.

Congenital heart disease with changes in the sex chromosomes is much rarer than in trisomy autosomes.

Mutations of a gene not only lead to congenital heart disease, but also to abnormalities of other organs. Developmental disorders of the CVS (cardiovascular system) are associated with the syndrome of autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive syndrome. These syndromes are characterized by a pattern of damage to the system in a mild or severe severity.

The development of congenital heart disease can contribute to various environmental factors that damage the cardiovascular system. Among them, X-ray radiation could be identified that a woman could receive during the first half of pregnancy; Radiation by ionized particles; some types of medicines; Infectious diseases and viral infections; Alcohol, drugs, etc. Therefore, heart disease formed under the influence of these factors has received the name of embryopathy.

Under the influence of alcohol, most commonly formed VSD (defect of the interventricular septum), OAP (open arterial duct), pathology of the interatrial septum. For example, anticonvulsants lead to the development of pulmonary artery stenosis and aorta, aortic coarctation, OAP.

Ethyl alcohol is the first of the toxic substances, contributing to congenital heart disease. A child born under the influence of alcohol has an embryophytic alcohol syndrome. Alcoholic mothers suffer from almost 40% of children with congenital heart disease. Alcohol is particularly dangerous in the first trimester of pregnancy – this is one of the most critical stages of fetal development.

Very dangerous for the future of the child is the fact that the pregnant woman suffered from rubella. This disease causes a number of pathologies. And the innate pathology of the heart is no exception. The incidence of congenital heart disease after rubella is between 1 and 2.4%. Among the heart diseases are the most common in practice: OAA, AVK, Fallot tetralogy, DMZHP, stenosis of the pulmonary artery.

The data from the experiments show that almost all congenital heart defects are basically of genetic origin, which is consistent with a multifactorial inheritance. Of course, there is heterozygosity of a genetic nature and some forms of UPU are associated with mutations of a gene.

In addition to the aetiological factors that cause congenital heart disease, there is also a risk group in which women fall into the age group; Have violations of the endocrine system; with toxicoses of the first three months of pregnancy; who have stillborn babies in the history, as well as already existing children with congenital heart defects.

congenital-heart-disease-symptoms

Congenital heart disease symptoms

The clinical picture of congenital heart disease is characterized by features of the structure of the defect, the recovery process and the complications resulting from a variety of etiologies. The symptoms of congenital heart disease include shortness of breath, which occurs in the context of low physical exertion, increased heart rate, periodic weakness, paleness or cyanosis of the face, pain in the heart, swelling and fainting.

Congenital heart defects can occur at regular intervals, so there are three major phases.

In the primary, adaptive phase, the patient’s body attempts to adapt to circulatory system disorders caused by a developmental defect. As a result, the symptoms of manifestation of the disease are usually not very pronounced. But during a severe hemodynamic injury, cardiac decompensation quickly develops. If patients with congenital heart disease do not die during