How to Determine the Disease Risk from Risk Ratio LDL HDL

Risk ratio LDL HDL is important if you want to predict how high your risk to suffer from heart disease. Most of physicians these days held on a notion that knowing non-HDL cholesterol is more beneficial compared with measuring the cholesterol ratio. However, there is another opinion saying that it can be a better predictor for instead of total cholesterol level or bad cholesterol level. Non-HDL cholesterol likes its name is subtracting the good one from the total cholesterol. Hence, it also includes the LDL or bad cholesterol.

Determining the number of HDL and LDL

The total cholesterol known from risk ratio hdl/ldl is the sum of fats in the blood which contains both HDL and LDL. From this test result, you are able to know the risk factors of getting severe disease like stroke or coronary heart disease. Besides, the amount of each type of cholesterol is known to be good predictor instead of the total amount. For instance, both physicians and health care professionals use LDL cholesterol as indicator in the test. Hence, the elevated number of LDL cholesterol could indicate higher risk of someone of getting obstructed arteries and other health problems. Meanwhile, physicians often called HDL as good cholesterol and they defines its level in the contrary from LDL. Hence, ldl hdl ratio risk factors which showing higher HDL numbers means that your risk of developing heart disease and other severe diseases is lower. Good cholesterol also provides protection to blood vessels and prevents cardiovascular diseases to develop in your body. Triglycerides are also part of cholesterol and its number is more indicated how many fats you consume recently. Like bad cholesterol, high level of triglycerides also will raise your risk of suffering from stroke and coronary artery.

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The normal amount to non-HDL cholesterol

As non-HDL cholesterol is often used as indicator instead of the total amount, most of you might be thinking on how much the normal amount of this cholesterol in ldl/hdl ratio levels when having a testing. You will be considered to have an optimal level of non-HDL cholesterol is below 130 miligrams per deciliter or the measurement showing it is less than 3.37 milimoles per liter. The high level of non-HDL means you have more risk to develop heart disease. If your test result indicating your risk to suffering from that disease is high, you have to plan a change in your daily diet as well as lifestyle so that you can give prevention to that risk before it comes true.

If you want to calculate the cholesterol ratio, you just need to divide the total cholesterol number with the number of your cholesterol level. For example, if the total cholesterol number is 200 mg er dL and the number of HDL cholesterol is 50 mg per dL, the ratio will range from 4 to 1. If you receive higher ratio, it means that you have higher risk to develop heart disease. The high number of the test result also showing ldl hdl ratio cardiovascular risk.

What Is The Coronary Heart Disease And How Does It Arise

Definition: What is a coronary heart disease (CHD) and how does it arise? CHD is the most common heart disease of the entire world population. It is also referred to as ischemic heart disease. In Germany, approximately 6 million patients are affected. Scientists believe that the incidence of coronary heart disease will increase with increasing life expectancy.

CHD primarily affects people over the age of 50 and is one of the most frequently reported causes of death in all industrialized countries. It is a disease of the heart caused by occlusions and constrictions in the coronary arteries.

These arteries are among the blood vessels that supply the heart with energy-giving nutrients and oxygen-rich blood. Especially with physical stress, the blood transport through the body is reduced and there are typical symptoms of CHD.

How is the calcification of coronary arteries formed?

Calcification of coronary arteries is caused by deposition of arteriosclerotic plaques by :

    • cholesterol
    • saturated fatty acids
    • lime-like particles

In some cases, initial nutritional damage already exists due to :

    • high blood pressure
    • Diabetes mellitus

The human immune system does not recognize the plaques as endogenous. This is followed by inflammatory reactions and the plaques become increasingly unstable, since activated immune cells no longer fulfill their task and die in the same. Deposits begin to open by progressive increase. The contents enter the bloodstream and finally the coronary vessels, where it settles again.

Typical symptoms of CHD

Depending on the stage of development of CHD different symptoms occur. It is distinguished into three different forms of stages of coronary heart disease.

latent CHD

A latent coronary heart disease is characterized by mild to moderate constrictions of the coronary arteries. There is a coronary sclerosis.

Although this phase is asymptomatic, there is already a significant mismatch between oxygen supply and demand. Despite the absence of symptoms, it is possible to detect a reduced perfusion of the heart muscle. In diabetics often no typical symptoms are noticeable.

Stable CHD

At this stage, sufferers notice typical CHD symptoms that occur under certain conditions. In most cases, they return alone or can be treated with medication (stable angina pectoris).

Angina Pectoris is the leading symptom of coronary heart disease. Affected notice a feeling of tightness as well as pain directly behind the breastbone. Primarily, the symptoms occur in cold, but also exercise. Other factors, such as mental stress or high-fat meals, can trigger these symptoms as well.

The resulting pain often spreads to the left arm or to other body regions such as upper abdomen, jaw or neck.

Other typical symptoms of CHD are:

    • Shortness of breath (shortness of breath)
    • sweats
    • Arrhythmia

Occasionally affected people feel dread. As soon as the affected person comes to rest or stays warm again, these symptoms of angina pectoris return.

Typical symptoms of angina pectoris vary in their frequency, intensity and duration. They are closely related to the current progression of the CHD. In patients with renal insufficiency or diabetes mellitus, chest pain persists. This also applies to persons over 75 years and operated on. Here are breathlessness, dizziness, nausea and radiation of pain in the abdominal area as warning signs.

Unstable CHD and acute coronary syndrome

Similar symptoms of angina pectoris also occur here. However, they are significantly stronger and unpredictable (unstable angina pectoris). This expression can not always be adjusted to medication.

As a result, coronary heart disease leads to a reduced resilience of sufferers and causes a reduction in performance. Depending on the severity, this affects the quality of life. In individual cases, patients can no longer sufficiently fulfill everyday tasks.

At the same time, the clinical picture may continue to deteriorate and become a life-threatening stage of CHD. The so-called acute coronary syndrome is characterized by three manifestations :

    1. Unstable angina pectoris
    2. is characterized by a lack of elevations of the heart enzymes (creatine kinase MB, troponin) in the blood. ECG results show no changes that indicate a heart attack.
    3. Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI, acute myocardial infarction)
    4. shows no changes in the ECG, however, heart enzymes that point to possible heart disease and an infarction, detectable in the blood.
    5. ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, acute myocardial infarction)
    6. manifests itself by typical changes in the ECG and detectable cardiac enzyme levels in the blood

As a consequence of these features occur :

    • Heart failure due to a heart attack
    • Heart arrhythmia due to a myocardial scar or coronary circulatory disorders
    • Sudden cardiac death
Risk factors for the development of CHD

The training of CHD is favored by numerous risk factors. Women over the age of 55 and men over the age of 45 are at particular risk. The previous lifestyle plays a particularly important role here. Unhealthy, high-fat diet, lack of exercise and smoking increase the risk of diseases such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, lipid metabolism and glucose tolerance disorders. As a consequence of this, in turn, a CHD can arise.

Not to be ignored is the family disposition. Special caution is advised when cases of CHD to heart attack have already occurred in the family environment, if possible risk factors should be largely avoided and a special focus on a healthy, balanced lifestyle should be laid. 

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The diagnosis of CHD

Due to the risk factors for coronary heart disease described above, the diagnosis begins with an intensive discussion. Besides the risks, complaints are also documented. In addition, an assessment of the physical capacity of the patient.

This is followed by a physical check focusing on the legs, lungs and heart. Possible signs of CHD include :

    • Cardiac malformations such as aortic valve stenosis
    • rattling breathing due to pulmonary congestion
    • heart failure

Weight, heart rate, blood pressure and vascular status are also determined in order to make a correct diagnosis. If the patient reports symptoms suggestive of possible angina pectoris, the physician also measures the heart rate.

Which laboratory values ​​are suitable for the diagnosis of CHD?

The following values ​​are recorded in case of suspected coronary heart disease during the initial examination :

    • blood count
    • Cholesterol levels (HDL, LDL)
    • electrolysis
    • total cholesterol
    • Urinary findings (because of possible albuminuria)
    • creatinine
    • Fasting blood sugar
    • triglycerides

What exactly does a further diagnosis of CHC include?

In individual cases further investigations follow, for example :

    • Stress echocardiogram
    • Computed tomography (CT)
    • Echocardiogram (ultrasound of the heart)
    • Ergometry (ECG during exercise and rest)
    • coronary angiography
    • scintigraphy

Basically, the choice of possible advanced diagnostic methods depends on the likelihood of coronary heart disease. This results from various factors such as gender, age, risks as well as symptoms.

The treatment of CHD

Therapeutic measures in diagnosed CHD are based primarily on two basic elements. On the one hand, medications can support the treatment. On the other hand, specific non-pharmacological measures, especially on the part of the patient, are necessary.

Drug treatment of CHD

The primary goals of a drug therapy of CHD are the alleviation of the symptoms and the positive influence on the further course of the disease. For this purpose different groups of active ingredients are available :

    • ACE inhibitors
    • Beta-blocker (beta-receptor blocker)
    • Cholesterol-lowering drugs (e.g., statins)
    • Platelet aggregation inhibitor (clopidogrel, acetylsalicylic acid)

Typical symptoms of angina pectoris can be alleviated with nitrates or calcium channel blockers (calcium antagonists). In addition, the flu vaccine is recommended for affected patients. In acute cases, bypass surgery may improve the CHD. Sometimes a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is necessary.

Treat CHD without medication

Secondary preventive measures aim to prevent further complications as well as alleviate the current symptoms of CHD. The focus is on a healthy lifestyle. The individual components are similar to the primary preventive approach, which prevents the development of coronary heart disease.

Can a CHD be prevented?

In order to prevent a possible development of CHD, primary preventive measures can be taken to improve general heart health. A healthy lifestyle, sufficient exercise and a balanced diet are the basic requirements for this.

Sports that have a positive effect on heart health include swimming, running or cycling. Ideally, stress should be avoided, which is not completely possible for most people, so stress should be adequately processed or broken down through yoga, relaxation exercises or autogenic training.

In case of overweight, a weight reduction should be targeted. In addition, smoking cessation is recommended, which can minimize or even prevent numerous health problems. In addition, persons over the age of 35 should take the health check at the family doctor every two years. Here, typical risks, such as Diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure or elevated cholesterol, to be diagnosed for CHD.

Doctors Tips Of Prevention And Cognition, Heart Attacks

Ischemic heart disease.

Ischemia is a decrease in blood supply to a body organ, tissue or partially arrested by constriction or blockage of the blood vessels, and it is the right medical term for reduced blood flow to the heart. Cured or blocked arteries usually cause us, and it is the leading cause of death in most Western countries. The growth of these tissues is called arteriosclerosis.

Atherosclerosis typically begins in early adolescence but is rarely diagnosed until late in life usually due to a stroke or heart attack. Autopsies of healthy young men who died during the Korean and Vietnam War showed signs of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment can stop the progression of atherosclerosis and prevent a medical emergency.

According to the United States data for 2004 for about 65% of men and 47% of women, the first symptom of atherosclerosis is heart attack or sudden cardiac death (death within one hour after onset of symptoms) or obstruction of the arteries that cause the Brain as a result of a stroke.

Another problem that can cause ischemic heart disease is an aneurysm. It is a localized, pathological, blood-filled dilation of a blood vessel causing a weakling from the vascular wall. Plaque forms in the arteries causing it an obstacle and the blood flow around the constipation pressure on the walls of the arteries. This can cause the walls of the arteries to balloon out and weaken as the blood moves around the obstacle. If one of these balloons or aneurysms explodes then death can occur within minutes.

When the plaque is displaced from the arterial walls it will travel into the heart and cause one of the blood vessels of the heart to get blocked, causing a heart attack. If the plaque gets lodged in one of the blood vessels, the blood supply to the brain, then it becomes a stroke.

heart-attack

Ischemic is caused by a diet rich in fats and physical inactivity. A high-fat diet leads to high levels of cholesterol in the blood. The American Heart Association offers a range of guidelines for total blood cholesterol and heart disease risk. The desirable LDL is less than 100 mg / dl. However, the report from the National Cholesterol Education Program in 1987 suggesting that total blood cholesterol should be below 200 mg / dL of normal blood cholesterol when cholesterol levels between 200 and 239 mg / dL are considered borderline high, and higher than 240 mg / dl is considered high cholesterol.

Many scientists, nutritionists, and activists are concerned about ischemic heart disease, and they are trying to educate the American people into a healthier diet. And this power of healthy suggestion seems to work on restaurants. Especially since 2004, fast food chains have begun to offer healthier menu options such as yogurt, salads and fruits. Many restaurants now print some nutritional information on their menus and specifically offer heart-smart recipes.

Over-the-counter products and Vitamins are common and can help relieve heart disease such as Pectin, Foti, Vitamin C, Niacin, and EPA. Foti also called He Shou Wu in China is legendary in his ability to extend life. Modern studies have shown that Foti has the ability to lower serum cholesterol, prevent premature gray hair, promote red cell growth, increase blood and longevity at the cellular level. This herb raises the level of naturally occurring antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the body. Foti can reduce blood cholesterol by inhibiting intestinal absorption, which helps to reduce atherosclerosis and other heart diseases.

Niacin is the next thing, a perfect treatment that corrects most causes of coronary heart disease. Niacin blocks the release of fatty acids from the fat cells. Niacin plays an important role in gene expression, energy production, and hormone synthesis. You can not live without it. Niacin also tends to alter LDL particle distribution to larger particle size and improve HDL functioning. The intake of 3 g of niacin for less than two weeks to reduce serum cholesterol by 26 percent.

Vitamin C has been shown to counteract the development of cholesterol deposits in the arteries. Within hours of receiving vitamin C patients showed a sharp decline in blood cholesterol.

Pectin limits the amount of cholesterol your body can absorb. High pectin in apples can count why “One day keeps the doctor away”.

Studies of Greenland Eskimo’s lack of heart attacks have shown that Eico sapentaenoic acid (EPA) lowers cholesterol significantly, even more than polyunsaturated fat. It also triggers a significant reduction in triglycerides. Salmon oil is one of the most famous natural EPA sources.

If you are at risk of heart disease then you will find a good health care professional before beginning any kind of home treatment.

Always ask your doctor before using this information, this article is nutritional in nature and is not considered medical advice.

Vitamin D For The Heart Health

In recent years, the warnings of the harmful effects of sun on our skin. The danger posed by the sun’s rays should not be underestimated, as it is ultimately responsible for the development of skin cancer. This is also the reason why more and more people avoid sunlight – with far-reaching consequences for their heart health, among other things.

Vitamin D – the sun hormone

The vitamin D was in many scientific studies a great similarity to various steroid hormones certified, so it was henceforth referred to as hormone. Since then, vitamin D has been known as the sun hormone. The explanation for this name lies in the fact that vitamin D is formed by the body itself, and only in conjunction with the sunlight.

As a messenger, it then reaches the bones, the muscles, the brain, the immune system, the pancreas and many other body organs via the blood in order to fulfill its specific tasks. But how does the body react to vitamin D deficiency?

We examine this question using the example of the cardiovascular system.

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How sunlight creates vitamin D

In the liver, the precursor of vitamin D is formed. When the sun’s rays shine on the skin, vitamin D becomes the first precursor of vitamin D3. The skin itself then forms another precursor of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). Now the vitamin D3 has to be transported from the skin back to the liver, where it is processed further.

The resulting vitamin is now called calcidiol and is the basis for the vitamin D metabolism dar. About the blood, the calcidiol then finally enters the body cells in which the active form of vitamin D3 – the calcitriol – arises.

Please note: In the form of calcidiol, vitamin D3 is offered as a nutritional supplement. Calcitriol is available exclusively as a prescription drug.

Vitamin D3 capsules

Supplementation in case of sun deficiency. For decades, the important influence of vitamin D on bone health has been emphasized. For a sufficient intake, a daily dose of 600 IU / was recommended, while at the same time a vitamin D blood value of 20 ng / ml was considered normal.

Today, however, many experts believe that this value should be at least 50 ng / ml, so that the vitamin D can develop its optimal effect. In view of this new knowledge, an amount of 4000 to 10,000 IU of vitamin D3 is now considered as supplementation (dietary supplement) for a recommended dosage, as long as one does not spend enough time in the sun.

However, the amount of vitamin D actually needed can always be viewed individually, as it depends on various factors. On the one hand, the starting point, ie the quantity produced by the body itself, has to be considered.

In addition, the amount absorbed by the intestine also varies greatly with the dose delivered. It depends a lot on the intestinal health. In addition, the weight of humans also plays an important role. Since vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, it often disappears into the fat deposits, especially in overweight individuals.

Vitamin D3 and Vitamin K2

It is impossible to take an overdose of vitamin D due to sun exposure to the skin. The situation is different with the supplementation with vitamin D3. Here is an overdose, which could then cause heart problems, not completely excluded.

To optimally benefit from the effects of vitamin D supplementation, vitamin D3 should be taken together with vitamin K2 (as MK-7). Both vitamins have a synergistic effect that dissolves calcium deposits inside the arteries and heart valves and transports them to where the calcium really belongs – to the bones.

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Inflammation can cause cardiovascular disease

Vitamin D has so many positive benefits on the cardiovascular system. This finding is particularly important, as every second person dies from the consequences of a disease of this system. Especially people with a high blood pressure suffer a heart attack up to three times more frequently than people with normal blood pressure values.

Some cardiology specialists now want to make history about the widespread misconception that cholesterol is the cause of cardiovascular disease. They are convinced that it is not cholesterol but arterial inflammation that is the cause of all cardiovascular problems and heart disease.

The causes of arterial inflammation

Much of these inflammatory reactions are due to a wrong diet. For the rest, cardiologists blame vitamin D deficiency. This thesis was confirmed among other things in the context of an eight-year study (Ludwigshafener risk study) to 3000 participants. The study found that vitamin D deficiency significantly increases the risk of dying from heart disease. This relationship has also been confirmed by American studies.

The explanation for the effectiveness of vitamin D in terms of cardiovascular disease is based on the fact that vitamin D can protect against inflammation of any kind.

In light of this, it is not surprising that many recent studies have confirmed the link between vitamin D deficiency and the ever-increasing death toll of people with heart disease.

The Brazilian study on vitamin D

These studies were conducted in hospitals specializing in the treatment of patients with coronary heart disease. One of these studies was conducted in Brazil and published in 2012.

In the 206 patients who participated in this study, initially the vitamin D level in the blood was measured. Thereafter, the participants were divided into two groups. One patient group had a vitamin D level of 10 ng / ml or below and was therefore considered to be deficient. The other group had a vitamin D level of 20 +/- 8 ng / ml, which was considered normal. After all, these were patients who already suffered from coronary heart disease.

Of the study participants who had severe vitamin D deficiency, a significantly higher percentage died during treatment at the hospital than from those patients whose vitamin D blood levels were normal for their condition.

The scientists came to the following conclusion:

Severe vitamin D deficiency has a significant effect on the mortality rate of patients with acute coronary syndrome (circulatory disorder in the coronary arteries).

In other words, the likelihood of you dying after a heart attack in the hospital is significantly greater if you only have an insufficient amount of vitamin D in your blood.

The Danish study on vitamin D

In September 2012, a Danish study was conducted at the University of Copenhagen in collaboration with the Copenhagen University Hospital. This study involved more than 10,000 Danes whose vitamin D levels were measured between 1981 and 1983. Over the years, the values ​​were checked regularly.

The leader of this study, dr. Peter Brøndum-Jacobsen, announced the following result:

We have seen that low vitamin D blood levels significantly increase the risk of developing heart disease or worsening existing conditions compared to optimal vitamin D levels. Our results showed that the risk of developing ischemic heart disease increased by 40%. This condition describes a constriction of the coronary arteries, which leads to strong circulatory disorders of the heart muscle, causes pain in the chest area and finally can cause a life-threatening heart attack. The risk of having a heart attack increases by 64%. The risk of premature death is increased by 57%, and the risk of dying from heart disease generally increases by as much as 81%.

The American study of vitamin D

Another study was conducted at the Heart Institute at Intermountain Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah. Almost 28,000 patients over the age of 50, who had no heart disease by that time, participated in this study. For all participants, the vitamin D value in the blood was first determined. Subsequently, they were divided into three groups based on the measurement results (very low value, low value, normal value). The normal guideline value for this study was 30 ng / ml.

The study found that those patients who had a very low vitamin D level were twice as likely to succumb to heart failure than those who had normal vitamin D levels in the body. In addition, study participants in the group with the lowest vitamin D levels were 78% more susceptible to strokes and 45% more susceptible to coronary heart disease.

Overall, it has been found that very low vitamin D levels are twice as likely to cause cardiac failure than is the case in normal people.

The best vitamin D supplier is the sun

All the research results about the vitamin D clearly show that our body relies on this vitamin so that diseases that are also due to a vitamin D deficiency, not even arise. Use this information for the sake of your health. Expose yourself to natural UV radiation as often as possible. Bring sun to your skin whenever possible, but remember the following recommendations:

    • Do not expose yourself to the blazing sun, because the sun’s rays can also be reached in sheltered places.
    • Depending on the skin type, the sun should not last longer than 5 to a maximum of 40 minutes.
    • Avoid the midday sun, as the dangerous UVA radiation is highest during this time.
    • Do not use sunscreen for short stays in the sun, as sunscreen with sun protection factor 15 will almost completely block vitamin D production.

If you also check your diet and optimize it, it should soon improve your heart 🙂

How to check your vitamin D level with a home test, how to evaluate the result and how you can determine the right vitamin D dosage for you, read here: Vitamin D – The right intake.