Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD)

The atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD for short) is a particularly complicated congenital heart defect. Everything you need to know about the symptoms and treatment of an atrioventricular septal defect.

The atrioventricular septal defect is one of the most serious congenital heart defects. It includes practically all important structures of the heart. It is a combination of permeable atrial and ventricular septum (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect), overgrown or malformed heart valves (the tricuspid valve between the right atrium and right ventricle and mitral valve between the left atrium and left ventricle have a common valve ring of the heart).

The symptoms of atrioventricular septal defect are almost always so severe that newborns die within a few days without rapid drug therapy. In addition, an operation is inevitable to close the septum, correct the heart valves and thus normalize the conduction of the heart. Surgical correction of the AVSD usually takes place during the first year of life. Without surgery, life expectancy with a weak atrioventricular septal defect is around 20 years.

Fortunately, atrioventricular septal defects are very rare congenital heart defects. The incidence of AVSD is 4 cases in 10,000 live births. Children with trisomy 21 are affected in more than 70 percent of cases. About every second child with trisomy 21 is born with AVSD.

Atrioventricular Septal Defect

The exact causes of the atrioventricular septal defect are not known. It stands to reason, however, that genetically determined influences play an essential role. This is supported by the high incidence of AVSD in children with trisomy 21 (formerly known as Down’s syndrome). In addition, AVSD occurs in families. If the first child is born with an atrioventricular septal defect, the probability of the malformation in the next child is 2.5 percent.

Treatment

In almost all cases, atrioventricular septal defects can be corrected surgically. The operation is usually carried out during the first 3 months of life.

Forecast

The chances of recovery after correction of the atrioventricular septal defect are generally good. However, up to 20 percent of those affected will have to undergo further operations in the course of their lives. The most common interventions are repeated corrections of the mitral valve for mitral valve insufficiency and the insertion of a pacemaker. Life expectancy after a successful procedure and adequate lifelong cardiological support are largely normal, according to the Hannover Medical School.

Heart Rate Monitors

Physical activity can have positive effects on the human physique and psyche. This or something like that is the widespread opinion among the population. But it is often forgotten that “wrong” training often leads to negative or undesirable results. Overly ambitious sporting efforts quickly lead to overloading of the cardiovascular system, which in some cases can culminate in a heart attack in the untrained. The human pulse, or rather the heart rate, is an indicator of the “correct” training. This counts as an exertion indicator from which the current stress on the body can be read. With the help of the heart rate, conclusions can be drawn about your own training behavior in order to ensure an individually balanced and above all health-promoting training. The constant control of the heart rate protects the athlete from overexertion, which – as already mentioned – is not without danger, especially under high stress. On the other hand, there is the possibility of optimally planning the training in order to achieve the greatest possible training effect. Regardless of whether you want to build up your stamina, increase it or reduce weight.

Heart Rate Monitors

With the help of modern heart rate computers, also known colloquially as pulse monitors, the individually optimal heartbeats per minute can be calculated and controlled. Such a heart rate computer usually consists of a wristwatch with a display and a chest strap that measures the heart rate and transmits it telemetrically to the watch. There is a large number of manufacturers who offer such devices in all price ranges and with different specifications.

heart-rate-monitors

Furthermore, the modern cardio machines in fitness studios have receivers for the chest strap and can even take the pulse into account directly in the training programs. In order to be able to start pulse training, the athlete needs his “maximum heart rate”, which can be used to define the various training areas. It is possible to roughly calculate this value (220 – age), but this cannot be more than a guideline value. In order to get an exact result, it is advisable either to have a measurement carried out in the fitness studio or to use a heart rate monitor that can determine the “maximum heart rate”.

Guide Values ​​For Training

The following guidelines apply to training, depending on the training goal: Light training between 50% and 60% of the maximum value helps to stabilize your health. For optimal fat burning, it is advisable to keep the pulse between 60% and 70% of the maximum value. if you want to increase your endurance, you should vary your training heart rate between 70% and 85%. Overall, with balanced, health-oriented fitness training, the pulse should be between 50% and a maximum of 85% of the calculated maximum pulse.

Cardiac Arrhythmias

Many people have abnormal heart rhythms during their lifetime. Healthy people sometimes notice that a beat skips or the heart stumbles. Such extra blows (so-called extrasystoles) are to a certain extent harmless and harmless (especially for young people). But sometimes these stumbling blocks indicate serious heart disease. Here you will find everything about the symptoms, causes, and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias.

Definition

In the case of cardiac arrhythmias, the sequence of heartbeats is disturbed: the heart beats too fast, too slowly or too irregularly. In healthy adults, the heart beats about 60 to 80 times a minute when at rest and without exertion. With excitement, anger, fear, or stress, as well as physical strain, the heartbeat accelerates. On the other hand, it decreases during sleep. These changes are normal and important. In the case of cardiac arrhythmias, this adjustment of the heartbeat does not work properly.

Sinus nodes and AV nodes – clocks for the heart rhythm

The so-called sinus node in the heart indicates how fast and often the heart beats. However, this sinus node is not a palpable or tactile node. Rather, it is an accumulation of specialized heart muscle cells.

The sinus node is the first clock of the heartbeat. It is located in the upper area of ​​the right atrium and generates around 60 to 80 so-called excitations per minute. From there, these electrical impulses reach the AV node via the walls of the atria. This node lies at the transition between the atrium and the ventricle and steps in when the sinus node fails. It is like a downstream (secondary) pacemaker. However, the AV node produces only 40 to 50 excitations per minute. From the AV node, the electrical stimuli pass through specific conduction pathways into the muscles of the heart, which make the heartbeat.

Classification Of Cardiac Arrhythmias

Cardiac arrhythmias are classified according to their place of origin. They can arise in the atrium or the ventricle as well as in the stimulation and conduction system. There are also classifications according to speed and danger, as well as congenital and acquired cardiac arrhythmias. We limit ourselves to the classification of cardiac arrhythmias according to their place of origin.

Cardiac Arrhythmias

Atrial Arrhythmias

Arrhythmias that arise in the atrium of the heart are called supraventricular arrhythmias. As a rule, pathological changes in the sinus or AV node are the cause.

Typical atrial arrhythmias are:

    • Atrial fibrillation (most common significant cardiac arrhythmia. With atrial fibrillation, non-directional electrical excitations run across the atria at an immense speed.
    • Atrial flutter (abnormal heart rhythm in which the auricles beat regularly but very quickly per minute)
    • Conduction disorder from the sinus node to the atrial muscles (sinoatrial block).
    • Heartbeats outside the normal heart rhythm, originating in the atrium (supraventricular extrasystoles).

Cardiac Arrhythmias In The Ventricle

Arrhythmias that arise in the chambers of the heart are called ventricular arrhythmias. Typical cardiac arrhythmias in the ventricle are:

    • Heartbeats outside the normal heart rhythm from the ventricle (ventricular extrasystoles)
    • Rapid, sometimes life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias that originate in the ventricles (ventricular tachycardia)
    • Ventricular flutter (rapid sequence of relatively regular ventricular actions)
    • Ventricular fibrillation (life-threatening and pulseless cardiac arrhythmia with disordered ventricular excitation, whereby the heart muscle no longer beats properly. If left untreated, ventricular fibrillation leads directly to death due to the lack of pumping capacity).

Cardiac Arrhythmias Of The Excitation And Conduction System

    • Malfunction of the sinus node and conduction in the atria (e.g. sick sinus syndrome, sick sinus node syndrome)
    • Delayed or interrupted conduction of excitation at the AV node (AV blockages)
    • rapid and regular heartbeats that begin suddenly and end abruptly (AV node reentry tachycardia)
    • Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW syndrome, a frequent cardiac arrhythmia in young people that is triggered by an electrical circuit between the auricles and the ventricles.)
    • Ventricular reserve rhythm after failure or blockage of sinus nodes or AV nodes.

Symptoms

A cardiac arrhythmia can also be seen when feeling the pulse wave, for example on the wrist. The pulse can really race, go very slowly or bump irregularly, be hard or flat and weakly palpable, and sometimes it can hardly be felt, if at all. Depending on the severity of the heart damage, shortness of breath, disorientation, dizziness, and temporary speech and vision disorders are possible. Very severe cardiac arrhythmias can lead to loss of consciousness or even death.

An overview of the symptoms of cardiac arrhythmias

    • slow, fast, or stumbling heartbeat (palpitations, palpitations)
    • Stopping the heartbeat (palpable pause in beat)
    • Feeling the heartbeat – sometimes up to the throat (palpitations)
    • Pulse changes (racing, slow, hard, soft, weak, or barely noticeable)
    • Heart pain, chest tightness (angina pectoris)
    • temporary speech and vision disorders
    • Difficulty breathing, disorientation, dizziness, drowsiness, confusion
    • Seizure, collapse, loss of consciousness.

Complications from cardiac arrhythmias

Arrhythmias can lead to dangerous complications. Vascular occlusions (embolisms), heart attacks, strokes, increasing heart failure or sudden cardiac death are particularly feared.

Causes

The cause of an arrhythmia can be in the heart itself or it can be a disease outside the heart. For example, febrile infectious diseases are often accompanied by a heartbeat that is too fast. An underactive thyroid usually causes a slow heartbeat.

Furthermore, electrolyte deficiencies (such as potassium deficiency or calcium deficiency) or an excess of minerals (such as potassium excess) can trigger cardiac arrhythmias of all kinds. For some people, eating 6 bananas is enough to cause cardiac arrhythmias. Because bananas contain a lot of potassium.

There are also congenital disorders of the cardiac excitation or everyday situations that change the heart rhythm (for example excessive alcohol or coffee consumption). Heart diseases that cause irregular heartbeat include:

Other diseases that can cause irregular heartbeat to include:

Hypersensitive carotid sinus in carotid sinus syndrome. The carotid sinus is a receptor on the main artery in the neck that can be irritated by pressure (for example when shaving, by a tight scarf or collar, or when the head is overstretched). As a result, the heartbeat slows down so much that the person affected sometimes passes out.

The following situations can trigger cardiac arrhythmias:

    • Fear, anger, nervousness
    • emotional stress and physical strain
    • excessive consumption of caffeine or teine ​​(coffee, tea, or cola)
    • excessive alcohol consumption
    • Smoke
    • Use of drugs or other poisons
    • Taking medication (e.g. side effects of thyroid hormones or antidepressants).

Examination

The typical complaints and previous or concomitant illnesses point the doctor to the diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmia. To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor will listen to your heart and measure your pulse, followed by a resting electrocardiogram (resting ECG) and, if necessary, a stress ECG. As a rule, these examinations are sufficient to determine cardiac arrhythmias.

Treatment

The doctor decides on an individual basis whether a cardiac arrhythmia needs treatment at all. Sometimes cardiac arrhythmias do not require treatment. Otherwise, the therapy depends on the type and cause of the cardiac arrhythmia. If illnesses are responsible for the disturbed heartbeat sequence, these must first be treated. There are many treatment approaches for cardiac arrhythmias themselves.

Drug Therapy For Cardiac Arrhythmias

Drugs for arrhythmias are called antiarrhythmics. Active ingredients from the following groups are used to treat cardiac arrhythmias with drugs:

    • Class I antiarrhythmics: sodium channel blockers such as ajmaline or quinidine
    • Class II antiarrhythmics: beta-blockers, e.g. bisoprolol, nebivolol, or metoprolol
    • Class III antiarrhythmics: potassium channel blockers, e.g. amiodarone, dronedarone or sotalol
    • Class IV antiarrhythmics: calcium antagonists, such as diltiazem and verapamil.

Other antiarrhythmics are:

    • Adenosine (is often used for the acute therapy of cardiac arrhythmias of the AV node)
    • Digitalis glycosides (strengthen the heart muscles, typical representatives are digoxin and digitoxin)
    • Parasympatholytics (such as atropine and ipratropium bromide)
    • Sympathomimetics (such as adrenaline and noradrenaline)
    • If channel inhibitors (a new group of active substances with the only representative so far ivabradine)

Cardioversion To Restore Normal Heart Rhythm

Cardioversion is designed to restore the heart’s normal sinus rhythm. This rhythmization is mainly used as an emergency treatment for ventricular flutter, ventricular fibrillation, and supraventricular or ventricular tachycardias. Cardioversion can be medicated or electrically (with the help of a defibrillator or cardiac shock). A strong current surge interrupts the electrical activity of the heart. This time-out allows the sinus node to resume its function and then rhythmically pace the heartbeat.

Ablation In Cardiac Arrhythmias

In the case of cardiac arrhythmias such as WPW syndrome, AV node reentry tachycardias, or with certain ventricular tachycardias, high-frequency current ablation can be useful. The starting point of the cardiac arrhythmia or additional conduction pathways (as in the WPW syndrome) is obliterated by electricity via a cardiac catheter.

Pacemaker For Cardiac Arrhythmias

Sometimes a pacemaker (Pacer, Pacemaker) is implanted if the heartbeat is too slow. In the case of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, the use of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) may be necessary to prevent cardiac arrest.

The pacemaker works like a pulse generator. It monitors the heartbeat and gives electrical impulses to the heart if it beats too slowly. The cardioverter-defibrillator is slightly larger than the pacemaker and monitors the heart rhythm. Depending on the rhythm disturbance, electrical impulses are emitted and over-or under-stimulation corrected. If necessary, cardiac shock therapy is carried out: defibrillation.

Both devices are implanted under the collarbone during a minor surgical procedure. Electrodes connect the devices to the heart. If the heartbeat drops too much, the pacemaker steps in. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is used, among other things, for atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation as well as for ventricular fibrillation.

Living With A Healthy Heart

Living With A Healthy Heart – Heart Failure, Infarction, Stroke

With a healthy heart, you open the horizon for a life without a heart attack, heart failure, or stroke. The best thing to do is to start right away. Cardiovascular diseases are by far the most common cause of death in Germany. More than 200,000 women and men die as a result of heart attacks, strokes, and heart failure alone. Many – some experts say almost all – of these people could still be alive if they had taken a little precaution – by living with a healthy heart. It’s a lot easier than most people think.

More Than 200,000 Heart Deaths Per Year

Before we get to the precautionary recommendations, a few more depressing figures about the current state of German heart health. 300,000 Germans experience a heart attack every year – around 60,000 women and men do not survive it. 270,000 suffer a stroke – around 100,000 of them die within the first year. And 70 percent of the survivors remain disabled in the long term – many of them are dependent on a nursing home. In addition, around 50,000 Germans die every year as a result of cardiac insufficiency (in almost 600,000 cases). Many cardiovascular diseases are preventable About 90 percent of all heart attacks are preventable, writes Dr. Norbert Smetak, the chairman of the Federal Association of Resident Cardiologists on the website for the German World Heart Day (September 29, 2015). He would like people to take more responsibility for their health and take advantage of the opportunities provided by prevention.

Live With A Healthy Heart

To live with a healthy heart – to some people that sounds a lot like asceticism and exertion. It is relatively easy to reduce the risk of high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, or heart failure. The focus is on exercise, nutrition, the conscious use of luxury foods, and regular medical checks. Movement keeps the heart fit No matter what age and no matter what medical history: Our body is designed so that we can move. The movement clearly activates the body’s self-healing powers. Movement is essential for targeted preventive care – and it even speeds up healing after serious illnesses. While exercise cannot heal a seriously ill heart, it does improve the prospects for longer life. Privatdozent Dr. med. Friedhelm Späh told the German Heart Foundation: “Regular physical activity leads to a considerable decrease in mortality, especially for people over 65.” It also improves the quality of life in many ways. Nobody needs to do sports to strengthen their heart and circulation. Just 20 minutes of exercise in the fresh air a day can help you live a healthy life, whether it’s a walk, a short bike ride, or a few laps in the swimming pool.

Living With A Healthy Heart

Pay Attention To The Diet

Regularly fresh fruit and vegetables not only enrich the menu, they also taste good and, with their vitamins and trace elements, promote heart health and the immune system. A sedentary lifestyle and obesity are the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Living with a healthy heart means avoiding or reducing excess weight. Strict diets do not help. As a rule, they only lead to the yo-yo effect. What you lose in months with great abstinence is usually back on in a few weeks after the diet. Sustainable weight loss is especially successful if you change your diet so that you like to eat this way over the long term. A low-calorie mixed diet with lots of fresh regional and seasonal foods, preferably fruit and vegetables, is ideal. Even low-fat meat is not taboo – just in moderation. Whole grain products are a useful addition to the fresh menu. They make you feel full in the long term – and through dietary fiber and trace elements, they promote digestion as well as the metabolism and the immune system.

Check-Up Every Two Years

If you exercise enough, eat a healthy diet, and are of normal weight, the risk of heart attack, stroke, heart failure or high blood pressure is dramatically reduced. If you now have your family doctor checked you up every two years, the chances of a long, heart-healthy life are particularly good. Men and women from the age of 35 are also entitled to a check-up every 2 years with statutory health insurance. Among other things, you should have your blood lipid levels checked. Because elevated cholesterol levels can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. The main concern is atherosclerosis, which leads to constricted or brittle blood vessels. Do not postpone a visit to the doctor in the event of acute symptoms A heart-healthy life also includes going to the doctor in the event of heart or circulatory problems without a clearly identifiable or known cause.

Typical signs of cardiovascular disease are, for example:

    • Pulse irregularities with no apparent cause
    • recurring pain in the heart area
    • unusual spells of dizziness
    • inexplicable inefficiency
    • decreased resilience
    • pronounced fatigue
    • shortness of breath
    • increased sweating
    • swollen legs
    • severe weight gain for no explainable cause

The heart benefits from serenity – you too!

“This is dear to my heart” or “It breaks my heart” – we call the heart the seat of our feelings. Even if this is not anatomically correct (feelings arise through mental evaluations in the brain), these sentences show an important connection. Our heart is very sensitive to stress. No wonder: stress is a defense reaction that puts the body in a state of alarm. We drive at full throttle, so to speak – and even the best engine cannot withstand that in the long run. The most pleasant side of a healthy-hearted life looks like this: Let your legs – and your soul – dangle more often. Just do what you enjoy doing. So that you can enjoy your heart-healthy life to the full for a long time. And as at the beginning of this article, something that you have known for a long time with some certainty: Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption is harmful to the heart and health. Not that we are accused of forgetting.

Triglycerides In Higher Concentrations May Increase The Risk Of Heart Attack

High triglyceride levels can increase the risk of heart disease. Triglycerides are the fat in our blood and work to energize the body. Extra triglycerides are stored for a future date if needed. Numerous studies suggest that high triglyceride levels increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglycerides form from the end product of digestion and come from the fat and carbohydrates we consume into energy for the body. Triglyceride levels are tested with a lipid panel, which is a similar test to how the cholesterol level is checked.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that high triglyceride levels pose a problem for nearly one-third of Americans. An increase in triglyceride levels has been observed over the last 30 years and yet only 1.3 percent of those with high levels take medication to lower it. This shows that more attention must be given to triglycerides, as high levels can have serious consequences and more should be done to reduce them, especially for those at high risk for heart disease.

The previous Study Shows Triglycerides Role In Coronary Heart Disease

Coronary artery disease is a common form of heart disease, and high levels of triglycerides can help. Studies by the Broad Institute show that reducing triglycerides can be an effective way to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.

Sekar Kathiresan, study leader, said, “The key question about these biomarkers over the years Who caused coronary artery disease and which are just an expression of the disease process? The reason this question is important is not the prediction, because biomarkers are useful to predict diseases, whether they are causal or not, the reason why we want to distinguish between these factors is the treatment, we really just want to attack the causes of the disease. ”

LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol) has been a well-known factor in heart disease and has been shown to reduce a person’s risk of developing heart disease by supporting statins. HDL, on the other hand, has always been thought of as a factor in reducing heart disease, but no link was found on how HDL can help improve CAD.

The research team has shown 185 variations in genetic coding to be associated with blood lipid traits. Single nucleotide polymorphisms or “SNPs” are inherited from one or both parents.

The researchers then investigated whether SNPs affected the LDL, HDL, triglyceride levels, and CAD risk relationship between triglyceride levels and CAD similar to that of LDL and CAD. LDL cholesterol forms plaque along the arterial walls and so the researchers believe triglycerides can work similarly by depositing fat along the arteries.

Kathiresan concluded: “Clinically speaking, one of the ways to prevent a first heart attack or reduce the risk of a second heart attack in someone who already has heart disease to treat patients with drugs that lower levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Some drugs targeting triglycerides are already being tested, and now it’s time to find the right triglyceride-lowering mechanism that effectively reduces the risk of disease. ”

high-triglyceride-levels

Guidelines For Triglyceride Levels

The National Cholesterol Education Program has established guidelines for normal triglyceride levels as follows:

Normal triglyceride levels: below 150 mg/dl

    • Borderline high triglyceride ranges : 150 – 199 mg/dl
    • High triglyceride ranges: 200 – 499 mg/dl
    • Very high triglyceride ranges: 500 mg/dl or higher
    • Although cholesterol and fat are vital to the body, it is important to maintain a normal level, as high levels increase the risk of serious health problems, especially of the heart.

Diet cholesterol and triglycerides come from the consumption of red meat and dairy products. When consumed these foods are absorbed through the intestine and distributed through the bloodstream to reach the liver where they are processed. Thus, the liver can develop a non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet makes the liver greasy.

It is the job of the liver to deliver up to 75 percent of cholesterol and triglycerides to the body of cholesterol found in the body. 

Difference Between Triglycerides And Cholesterol

Although triglycerides and cholesterol are similar in the sense that they are fatty species, they have differences. A single significant difference between cholesterol and triglycerides is the fact that cholesterol is used to create cells and particular hormones in which triglycerides store unused calories and energize the human body.

Another difference is that cholesterol is strongly influenced by the fat that is consumed by diet where triglycerides are affected by total calories. Excess calories are converted to triglycerides and stored when the body needs energy. Things like alcohol and sugary foods can have a bigger impact on triglycerides.

Tips For Lowering Triglycerides And Increasing Hdl Cholesterol Levels

High LDL cholesterol and triglycerides can trigger serious health concerns and so it is important to raise HDL and lower triglyceride levels to maintain good health. Here are some tips to increase HDL levels and lower triglycerides.

Lose weight

    • Cutting Sugar – The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends only five percent of your daily calories come from added sugar
    • Increase your fiber intake
    • Border Fructose – Fructose is a type of sugar that can contribute to high triglyceride levels
    • A Moderately Low-Fat Diet – A moderately low-fat diet has proven to be effective in lowering triglyceride levels as opposed to a strict low-fat diet.
    • Pay attention to the fat you eat – there are good fats and bad fats. Avoid saturated and trans-fat fats and consume more monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids such as
    • Increase your fish consumption – try sardines and salmon
    • exercise
    • Restrict alcohol
    • If necessary, take triglyceride-lowering medication and recommended by your doctor
    • Quit smoking
    • Control diabetes if you have it

By following these tips and working closely with your doctor, you can lower your triglyceride levels and protect your heart.

Heart Healthy Foods – Low Fat Diet For High Cholesterol

A low-fat diet program for high cholesterol is concerned about consuming a variety of low-fat, heart-healthy foods as propagated by the American Heart Association (AHA). These foods can help remove harmful cholesterol from the body. In addition to eating the most beneficial foods, they need you to be prepared in a healthy manner to get optimal results. Plus, no heart healthy diet completely without exercise, a known cholesterol-lowering factor.

Heart-healthy foods

Eat heart healthy food. Be in accordance to the AHA, heart-healthy foods are high in fiber, low in fat and high in antioxidants. These heart-healthy foods can increase your “bad” cholesterol level (LDL) as well as decrease your “good” cholesterol level (HDL). Soluble fiber helps remove harmful cholesterol from the body.

Eat soluble fiber foods. Notable sources of soluble fiber include whole grains, lentils and beans, nuts and seeds, fruits and vegetables, and healthy oils of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated varieties. The USDA recommends eating at least 10g of soluble fiber daily to lower your LDL.

Eat oatmeal. A 1 1/2 cup serving of oatmeal, it says in the Mayo Clinic, contains 6 grams of soluble fiber. In fresh fruit and increase soluble fiber of 4 g. Top with cinnamon and low-fat milk to start your low-fat diet for high cholesterol day nutritiously.

Eat plant sterol foods as part of your low-fat diet for high cholesterol. Plant sterols contain a strong lowering of the cholesterol property along with many beneficial antioxidants. According to the American Dietetic Association, herbal sterols are notable in low-fat soy products such as tofu, tempeh, soy and soy milk; walnuts; avocados; Linseed and sunflower seeds. You can also buy foods fortified with plant sterols such as orange juice, margarine and fruit smoothies.

low-fat-diet-for-high-cholesterol-6

Not Heart Healthy Foods

Watch out for saturated and trans fats. Foods containing these fats, according to the Mayo Clinic and USDA, can increase your “bad” cholesterol levels.

Saturated fats are found in animal products such as offal and whole-fat dairy products, including egg yolks and red meats. These fats are also found in fried foods, processed and prepackaged foods, biscuits, bread and many fast foods.

Food Preparation Methods

Choose heart-healthy cooking methods. According to the AHA and the USDA, if your food is made in an unhealthy method, such as deep frying, it can increase your LDL level. Healthy Cooking Methods to choose high cholesterol from your low-fat diet include steaming, grilling, poaching and baking (without excessive oils).

Physical activity

Exercise. Your low-fat high-cholesterol diet must also include daily physical activity, according to the AHA. It is recommended to have 30 minutes daily for at least five days a week. The exercise does not have to be exhausting for you to reap health benefits. Physical activity can lower your LDL. Choose activities that you are happy with and switch to avoid boredom.

fat-burning-tips-on-weight-loss

5 Often Underrated Fat Burning Tips On Weight Loss

There are countless tips on weight loss, and many of them may already be familiar to most. “Change your diet to whole foods. Make sure you use more energy. Interval training with heavy weights is more effective than extensive cardio training “, etc. The list of advice could be endless. The tips and tricks presented here are intended for those who want to lose weight in a healthy way, regardless of whether you are already fit for good habits and want to reach the next level or just start losing weight.

    1. Ensure adequate hydration

How do you do that best? Just get used to drinking a glass of water in the morning and always before eating, and drink enough between meals. You should never feel thirsty.

    1. Avoid carbohydrates in the morning

There are many different theories about carbohydrate timing. You’ve probably heard that most carbohydrates should be taken in the morning, as the body needs to be refueled and needs new energy. Although this sounds logical in theory, it is not 100% correct in the end. Try to start your day with proteins for a week instead of carbohydrates.

    1. Home remedy for belly fat

Many choose the wrong way to reduce their belly fat. In doing so, many home remedies can reduce fat and form the body, causing miracles, provided they are applied. Of course, some stamina and patience is required before the first results are achieved, but it is absolutely worthwhile. Some of these helpful home remedies for losing weight are: tomato, ginger and apple cider vinegar.

    1. Vitamin D and magnesium

In weight loss, vitamin D and magnesium play an important role. They are very important for the metabolic processes in the body. An undersupply makes weight loss difficult or even impossible. Apart from the fiber, the loss of weight in the project is a major shortcoming for most people in the supply of vitamins and minerals.

    1. Ensure a sufficient and restful sleep

When you are well rested and well rested, your body will produce less ghrelin (which is a predominantly gastric hormone that reduces energy expenditure and causes starvation). The lower limit: you will have less appetite and burn more calories.

 

how-alcohol-affect-blood-pressure

How Alcohol And Caffeine Affect Blood Pressure

Introduction

Blood pressure is the measurement of the power of your blood on the walls of the blood vessels. Their blood vessels are the arteries, veins and capillaries. Blood pressure is an important concept as it helps to drive up the oxygen and nutrients that your body needs to survive throughout your system. Unfortunately, when the blood pressure becomes too high, it can potentially damage the blood vessels. Two substances that can contribute to higher blood pressure, if not used in moderation, are alcohol and caffeine.

Alcohol

According to the American Heart Association, drinking alcohol in moderation can potentially have a positive effect on your heart. However, “in moderation” means only one or two drinks a day for men, and only one drink a day for women. Once you start consuming more than these, your blood pressure can begin to be adversely affected. Alcohol first does this by disrupting blood flow to the heart by removing nutrient-rich blood from the heart. Alcohol is also high in calories, resulting in obesity, which in turn also raises blood pressure levels. According to the Mayo Clinic, if you are currently taking antihypertensive medication, alcohol can interfere with their ability to work, putting you at an even higher risk of dangerously high blood pressure.

Caffeine

Caffeine can also be beneficial in moderation. According to men’s health, caffeine can help actively activate dopamine molecules and can also help fight off Alzheimer’s. But just like alcohol, when not used in moderation, caffeine can also have harmful effects on your blood pressure. Caffeine affects the blood pressure by narrowing the blood vessels. It does this by binding with adenosine receptors in the body, which blocks the possibility of properly functioning adenosine. Adenosine is a hormone that is partially responsible for helping keep blood vessels far enough for blood to pass through easily. Caffeine also stimulates the release of adrenaline and adrenal cortisol. One of the side effects of releasing these chemicals into the bloodstream is an increase in blood pressure.

What Is A Heart Ablation and How Catheter Ablation Corrects Heart Rhythm

Heart ablation is the term used by cardiac specialists for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias in which they deliberately obliterate pathological areas of the heart muscle tissue

Catheter ablation can permanently repair certain forms of cardiac arrhythmias. Beginnings of this treatment method exist since the eighties. Since then, technology has made tremendous progress. Today, numerous cardiology departments perform the procedure.

How does a catheter ablation work?

Understanding the principle of catheter ablation requires some basic knowledge of how the heart works: the heart consists of four heart cavities, two atria and two main chambers. The beating of the heart is generated by electrical impulses that arise at a specific location in the right atrium. From this so-called sinus node, the electrical impulses spread over the atria and the atrioventricular node (AV node) on the heart chambers and cause the contraction of the heart muscle (conduction system see also graph).

If there are additional faulty pathways or sites in the myocardial tissue that trigger further excitement, there will be episodic or persistent irregular heartbeat. This can be treated by the so-called catheter ablation. Depending on the cause of the disease, the doctors either devour the starting point of the additional heart beats or the abnormal pathways.

what-is-a-heart-ablation

When will a catheter ablation be used?

For most forms of cardiac arrhythmia, the doctor will first try to treat them with medication. If this therapy fails, catheter ablation can permanently rid the patient of his symptoms in certain types of arrhythmia:

In Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW syndrome), there is a congenital pathway between the atria and the ventricles as a short circuit. About the short-circuit connection, the excitement reach the chambers prematurely. It comes to the attacking tachycardia. After catheter ablation, when the expert obliterates the extra pathway, cardiac arrhythmia has disappeared in over 95 percent of cases.

In AV node reentry tachycardia, the electrical impulses circulate in the AV node. This causes tachycardia. Catheter ablation is the treatment of choice for this common cardiac arrhythmia and is successful in more than 95 percent of cases.

In atrial tachycardia (“atrial tachycardia”), the electrical impulses do not emanate from the sinus node but from other locations in the right atrium. The chances of a successful catheter ablation are slightly lower in atrial tachycardia than in WPW syndrome and AV node reentry tachycardia.

In typical atrial flutter, there is also a circular excitement in the right atrium. As the cardiac arrhythmia can be permanently cured by the catheter ablation in 95 percent of cases, it is clearly superior to the drug therapy.

Atrial fibrillation can be caused by electrical impulses from the pulmonary veins. When atrial fibrillation causes discomfort such as shortness of breath or heart failure, doctors use catheter ablation to electrically isolate the pulmonary veins. As a result, the interfering impulses should no longer reach the forecourts. The procedure lasts several hours. So far, he has been successful in seizure-related atrial fibrillation in about 70 percent of cases. For chronic atrial fibrillation, the success rate is just over 50 percent. Therefore, catheter ablation is only used when medications can not normalize the heart rhythm. Often, the patient must continue to take medication after ablation. In some cases, the catheter ablation needs to be repeated.

Although isolation of the pulmonary veins is not possible, there is still the possibility of AV node ablation. By sclerosing the AV node, the atria and chambers of the heart are completely separated electrically. The patient then needs a pacemaker. Therefore, AV node ablation is only an emergency solution.

How does a catheter ablation work?

Catheter ablation is usually performed as part of an electrophysiological examination (EPU) in the hospital. The standard procedure is radiofrequency ablation. Their principle is that the catheter tip delivers heat to the tissue with pinpoint accuracy. Other ablation procedures work with cold (cryoablation).

The inpatient admission usually takes place the day before the procedure so that the medical history can be recorded, the reconnaissance interview conducted and necessary preliminary examinations can be made.

Catheter ablation is performed like a cardiac catheter or EPU under local anesthesia. The patient is conscious. If necessary, the doctor administers painkillers and sedatives. First, the doctor examines exactly the cardiac arrhythmias and their place of origin in the EPU. Then he sets in the heart tissue on the ablation catheter targeted small scars of a few millimeters, to prevent the emergence or transmission of cardiac arrhythmia. After the sclerotherapy, if necessary, the doctor tests whether the cardiac arrhythmia can still be triggered by electrical impulses.

The duration of the procedure is very variable and can hardly be predicted. It can take two to six hours or, in some cases, even longer. The procedure after the procedure is similar to the follow-up treatment with the EPU: The doctor removes the catheters from the heart. In order to prevent rebleeding, he supplies the puncture site with a pressure dressing, which should remain there for 6 to 12 hours. During this time, the patient must observe strict bed rest so that the dressing does not slip. Mostly he can go back to work after a few days.

What are the risks and side effects of catheter ablation?

In most cases, the procedure is without complications. The complications that can occur with catheter ablation are essentially the same as those of the EPU. The doctor discusses it with the patient in a consultation before the examination.

Congenital Heart Disease – Treatment, Symptoms, and Causes

Congenital heart disease is a heart defect, of innate origin. Basically, this pathology concerns the septa of the heart, affects the artery, which supplies venous blood to the lungs or one of the main vessels of the arterial system – the aorta, and also There is an increase in the ballot channel (OAP). In congenital heart disease, the blood movement in the large blood circulation (BPC) and small (ICC) is disturbed.

Heart defects are a term that combines certain heart diseases whose main benefit is a change in the anatomical structure of the heart valve device or its largest vessels and the growth of the partitions between the atria or ventricles.

Causes of congenital heart disease

The main causes of congenital heart disease are diseases from the chromosomes – it is almost 5%; Mutation of the gene (2-3%); various factors such as alcoholism and drug addiction of parents; Infectious diseases in the first trimester of pregnancy (rubella, hepatitis), medications (1-2%) and hereditary predisposition (90%).

With various distortions of chromosomes, their mutations appear in a quantitative and structural form. When aberrations of large or medium-sized chromosomes occur, this generally leads to a lethal outcome. But if there are biases in life compatibility then there are several types of congenital diseases. When a third chromosome appears in the set of chromosomes, defects arise between the valves of the valves of the atrial and ventricular septa or a combination of these.

Congenital heart disease with changes in the sex chromosomes is much rarer than in trisomy autosomes.

Mutations of a gene not only lead to congenital heart disease, but also to abnormalities of other organs. Developmental disorders of the CVS (cardiovascular system) are associated with the syndrome of an autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive syndrome. These syndromes are characterized by a pattern of damage to the system in a mild or severe severity.

The development of congenital heart disease can contribute to various environmental factors that damage the cardiovascular system. Among them, X-ray radiation could be identified that a woman could receive during the first half of pregnancy; Radiation by ionized particles; some types of medicines; Infectious diseases and viral infections; Alcohol, drugs, etc. Therefore, heart disease formed under the influence of these factors has received the name of embryopathy.

congenital-heart-disease-symptoms

Under the influence of alcohol, most commonly formed VSD (defect of the interventricular septum), OAP (open arterial duct), pathology of the interatrial septum. For example, anticonvulsants lead to the development of pulmonary artery stenosis and aorta, aortic coarctation, OAP.

Ethyl alcohol is the first of the toxic substances, contributing to congenital heart disease. A child born under the influence of alcohol has an embryophytes alcohol syndrome. Alcoholic mothers suffer from almost 40% of children with congenital heart disease. Alcohol is particularly dangerous in the first trimester of pregnancy – this is one of the most critical stages of fetal development.

Very dangerous for the future of the child is the fact that the pregnant woman suffered from rubella. This disease causes a number of pathologies. And the innate pathology of the heart is no exception. The incidence of congenital heart disease after rubella is between 1 and 2.4%. Among the heart diseases are the most common in practice: OAA, AVK, Fallot tetralogy, DMZHP, stenosis of the pulmonary artery.

The data from the experiments show that almost all congenital heart defects are basically of genetic origin, which is consistent with multifactorial inheritance. Of course, there is heterozygosity of a genetic nature and some forms of UPU are associated with mutations of a gene.

In addition to the aetiological factors that cause congenital heart disease, there is also a risk group in which women fall into the age group; Have violations of the endocrine system; with toxicoses of the first three months of pregnancy; who have stillborn babies in the history, as well as already existing children with congenital heart defects.

Congenital symptoms of heart disease

The clinical picture of congenital heart disease is characterized by features of the structure of the defect, the recovery process and the complications resulting from a variety of etiologies. The symptoms of congenital heart disease include shortness of breath, which occurs in the context of low physical exertion, increased heart rate, periodic weakness, paleness or cyanosis of the face, pain in the heart, swelling, and fainting.

Congenital heart defects can occur at regular intervals, so there are three major phases.

In the primary, adaptive phase, the patient’s body attempts to adapt to circulatory system disorders caused by a developmental defect. As a result, the symptoms of manifestation of the disease are usually not very pronounced. But during a severe hemodynamic injury, cardiac decompensation quickly develops. If patients with congenital heart disease do not die during the first phase of the disease, there will be improvements in their health and development in about 2-3 years.

In the second phase the relative compensation and the improvement of the general condition are noticed. And for the second inevitably comes the third, when all the adaptive abilities of the organism eventually develop a dystrophic and degenerative nature of the changes in the heart muscle and in various organs. Basically, the terminal phase leads to the death of the patient.

The most pronounced symptoms of congenital heart disease include cardiac arrhythmia, cyanosis, and heart failure.

Noise in the heart of a systolic character and varying intensity is observed in almost all types of vices. But sometimes they can be absolutely absent or manifest as transience. As a rule, the best audibility is located in the left upper part of the sternum or near the pulmonary artery. Even a slight increase in the shape of the heart makes it possible to hear heart noises.

During the stenosis of the pulmonary artery and TMS (transposition of the main vessels), the cyanosis manifests itself sharply. And with other malformations, it may be missing or small. Cyanosis sometimes has a lasting character or occurs when weeping, crying, so with a periodicity. This symptom may be accompanied by a change in the end phalanges of the fingers and nails. Sometimes such a symptom manifests itself in the pallor of a patient with congenital heart disease.

In some types of vice, the dullness of the heart may change. And its increase will depend on the localization of changes in the heart. To make an accurate diagnosis to determine the shape of the heart, use an X-ray image using both anti-ography and kymography.

In heart failure, a spasm of the peripheral vessels can develop, which is characterized by blanching, cooling of the limbs and the tip of the nose. Spasm manifests as the adaptation of the patient’s body to heart failure.

 

congenital-heart-disease-symptoms

Congenital heart disease in newborns

Infants have a pretty big heart that has significant backup capabilities. Congenital heart disease is usually formed in 2-8 weeks of pregnancy. The cause of his appearance in the child is various diseases of the mother, contagious and viral; the work of the future mother in harmful production and of course a hereditary factor.

About 1% of newborns suffer from cardiovascular disease. Now it is not difficult to diagnose congenital heart defects early. So it helps to save the lives of many children through medical and surgical treatment.

Congenital heart disease is most commonly diagnosed in male children. And for various deficiencies, there is a certain sexual predisposition. For example, OAA and VSD predominate in women and aortic stenosis, congenital aneurysm, aortic coarctation, Fallot tetralogy, and TMA – in males.

One of the most common changes in the heart of children is the non-opening of the septum – this hole is abnormal. Basically, it is the VSW that is located between the upper chambers of the heart. Throughout the baby’s first year of life, some minor defects in the dividing walls may spontaneously shut down and not interfere with the child’s further development. Well, for major pathologies, surgery is indicated.

The fetal circulatory system prior to birth is a circulation that bypasses the lungs, meaning that blood does not flow there but circulates through the arterial duct. If a child is born, this gait usually closes within a few weeks. But if this does not happen, the child is put by the OAU. This creates some stress on the heart.

The cause of severe forms of cyanosis in children is the transposition of two large arteries when the pulmonary artery connects to the left ventricle and the aorta to the right ventricle. This is considered pathology. Without surgical intervention, newborns die during their first days of life. In addition, children with severe congenital heart disease rarely have a heart attack.

Characteristic signs of congenital heart disease in children are low weight, rapid fatigue, and paleness of the skin.

Congenital heart disease

Congenital heart defects can sometimes have a different clinical picture. Therefore, the treatment and treatment methods largely depend on the severity and complexity of the clinical manifestations of the disease. Basically, the picture of his life is absolutely normal, as in healthy people, when the patient is completely compensated for the blemish. As a rule, such patients do not need consultations with doctors. You can be given recommendations whose purpose is to keep the defect in a compensatory state.

First, a patient suffering from congenital heart disease should be limited to hard physical labor. This work, which adversely affects the well-being of the patient, is advisable to switch to another type of activity.

A person with a history of congenital heart disease should refuse to participate in complex sports and participate in competitions. To reduce the strain on the heart, the patient should sleep for about eight hours.

The right diet should accompany patients with congenital heart disease. Foods should be taken three times a day to ensure that plenty of food does not stress the cardiovascular system. All foods should not contain salt, and if heart failure occurs, the salt should not exceed five grams. It should be remembered that only cooked foods should be eaten as they are better for digestion and significantly reduce the burden on all digestive organs. Basically, you should not smoke and drink alcoholic beverages in order not to provoke a cardiovascular system.

One of the methods of treating congenital heart disease is medication when it is necessary to regulate the contractile function of the heart, regulate the water-salt metabolism and remove excess fluid from the body, as well as combat the altered rhythms in the heart To improve metabolic processes in the myocardium.

The treatment of congenital heart disease sometimes changes due to the specificity and severity of the defect. The age and health of the patient are also taken into account. For example, children with small forms of heart disease sometimes do not need treatment. And in some cases, surgical procedures must be performed as early as infancy.

Almost 25% of children with congenital heart disease urgently require early surgery. To determine the location of the defect and its severity, children are put into the heart with a catheter in their first days of life.

The most important surgical method for the treatment of congenital heart disease is the method of deep hypertension, in which a strong cold is used. This type of surgery is performed by babies with a heart in size with a walnut. Applying this method to heart surgery allows the surgeon to perform a complex operation to restore the heart as a result of its complete relaxation.

At the moment, other radical methods of treating congenital heart disease are widespread. Among them, the commissurotomy can be distinguished, in which the dissection of obstructed valves and prostheses is used when the altered mitral or tricuspid atrioventricular valve is removed and then the valve prosthesis is sutured. After such surgical procedures, especially mitral commissurotomy, the prognosis of the surgical treatment is positive.

Basically, patients return to their normal lifestyle after surgery, they are able to work. Children are not limited to physical abilities. However, anyone who has undergone heart surgery should continue to be monitored by the attending physician. A vise that has a rheumatic etiology requires repeated prevention.

What Is Right Heart Failure?

Sometimes we can recognize warning signs of our body in everyday things: the otherwise super-fitting elegant loafers have to be exchanged for extra-wide health shoes from the medical supply store? The responsible swollen feet can be a first symptom of right-sided heart failure, also called right heart failure. What happens to this form of heart failure in the body and how to recognize Right Heart Failure, read now.

Symptoms of Right Heart Failure

Simply put, in right heart failure, the right half of the heart is no longer working properly. This is often the result of advanced left heart failure. If the two forms come together, it is also called global heart failure. When it comes to the chronic form, the symptoms of heart failure can go unnoticed for a long time right. Common signs of right heart failure include:

    • Rapid weight gain and swollen ankles and feet indicate water retention in the tissues. If you press your finger on the thickened area, a dent remains that can last for several minutes.
    • Caution: A thrombosis (blood clot) can also cause swelling in the leg. In contrast to this disease, in case of right heart failure, however, both legs or feet are always swollen. A thrombosis must be treated immediately.
what-happens-with-heart-failure-on-the-right
What happens with heart failure on the right?

Right heart failure is a weak pumping of the right half of the heart, which is responsible for the transport of oxygen-poor blood to the lungs. Normally, the right half of the heart works like this:

    1. Low-oxygen blood from the upper and lower half of the body flows into the right atrium.
    2. From the right atrium, the blood enters the right ventricle.
    3. The spent blood flows from the right ventricle into the lungs, where it is enriched with oxygen. This is called “small blood circulation”.
What happens if the right half of the heart is weakened?

This is simply explained: In right heart failure, more blood flows out of the systemic circulation than the impaired, right ventricle can carry on to the lungs. There is a backlog of spent blood in front of the right atrium, which can reach into the legs or neck. Sufferers suffer from swollen legs and thickened veins. In addition, this can increase the pressure in the veins so much that the liquid components of the blood are pressed into the surrounding tissue. This causes water retention (edema) in the feet, abdomen or other parts of the body.

What is Heart Arrhythmia, Symptoms, Causes And Therapy

What is a heart arrhythmia?

Heart arrhythmia is a disorder characterized by an accelerated or severely slowed heartbeat. The change in heart rate is due to an increase or decrease in electrical activity in the heart muscle.

Expansion of the heart is controlled by electrical signals or impulses from the brain. An interruption in the transmission of these electrical pulses may result in the suspension of a heartbeat. The values ​​of a normal adult heartbeat are 60 to 100 beats per minute. If you have a heartbeat outside this area, talk to your doctor about it.

Arrhythmia is often a contraindication to sports.

heart-arrhythmia

When do you have to worry?

Benign arrhythmias manifest at the level of the atria (for example, atrial fibrillation) or the atrioventricular sinus. They do not lead to the death of the person. Malignant arrhythmias that can lead to death include tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation.

Causes of heart arrhythmia

Here are the main causes of irregular heartbeat and arrhythmias:

    • Coronary heart disease is a common cause of arrhythmia. It is a disorder in which the blood circulation in the coronary vessels is obstructed.
    • Stimulants such as smoking, alcohol abuse, drugs and caffeine.
    • Abnormal sodium or potassium levels in the blood.
    • Some stomach disorders, such as hiatus hernia or gastroesophageal reflux.
    • Stimulants in medicines for cough and cold.
    • They can occur during convalescence after heart surgery.
    • Hypertension or high blood pressure.
    • Thyroid dysfunction or hyperthyroidism are less common causes of arrhythmias.
    • Myocardial damage or fibrosis of the heart due to myocardial infarction.
    • Diabetes and insulin.

Symptoms of heart arrhythmia

The symptoms of an irregular heartbeat are very vague. Sometimes the patient does not feel it at all. Patients with serious arrhythmias may have few symptoms, while others with significant symptoms may present a less severe condition.

Symptoms include:

    1. Intermittent chest pain or angina, the most common symptom of an irregular heartbeat
    2. Fast and irregular frequency, strong tapping of the heart
    3. Fainting or syncope
    4. Difficult breathing, especially under stress
    5. Excessive sweating
    6. Fear and restlessness
    7. General malaise
    8. Dizziness or dizziness
    9. Fatigue

Asymptomatic arrhythmia

The asymptomatic arrhythmia is not always harmless and may cause blood clotting in the heart and / or a reduction in the amount of blood being pumped.

Heart Arrhythmia At Night

Nocturnal irregular heartbeat can have various causes. The most common are :

    • Diabetes
    • Hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism)
    • high blood pressure or hypertension
    • Other heart diseases
    • Some medicines
    • Smoke
    • Stressful situations
    • Some natural remedies

Arrhythmia after eating

When we eat, a large amount of blood is diverted to the digestive tract. The body immediately responds to this situation and tries to maintain normal blood pressure by increasing the heart rate and narrowing certain arteries. If this mechanism does not work, postprandial hypotension may occur (drop in blood pressure after eating). Older people may have arrhythmias after eating. People who may experience cardiac arrhythmias after meals include those with high arterial blood pressure or Parkinson’s disease.

Causes and symptoms of the disorder can vary from person to person, possibilities are:

    1. Some people suffer from tachycardia only in certain situations, for example, at night in bed, after eating sweet foods or foods with a high sodium content, etc.
    2. Inadequate water intake, which thickens the blood and thus forces the heart to work to pump the blood.
    3. Dysfunction of an endocrine gland.
    4. Problems of the digestive system.
    5. Excessive enjoyment of coffee and other stimulants.
    6. Disorders of the vagus nerve.
    7. Hiatus hernia (diaphragmatic hernia).
    8. Gastroesophageal reflux.
    9. Liver or kidney disease.
    10. People with a rapid resting heartbeat may have arrhythmias after eating.

symptoms-of-heart-arrhythmia

Atrial fibrillation (AF)

Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of arrhythmia. In this disease, the heart beats irregularly and too fast. AF can be chronic, persistent or paroxysmal. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurs occasionally and temporarily, and is short-lived, from a few seconds to a few days.

Ventricular arrhythmia

This is a heart disorder in which the irregular rhythm of the heart and heart beats come from the heart chambers. It can be divided into: ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bradycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Tachycardia means that the heart rate exceeds 100 beats per minute, while bradycardia is characterized by beats below 60 beats per minute. Ventricular fibrillation is a disease in which the heart beats quickly and irregularly. The result is a reduction of the pumped blood.

causes

    1. Drug side effects
    2. caffeine
    3. nicotine
    4. High sodium and potassium levels in the blood
    5. Necroses and fibroses of the heart muscle
    6. cardiomyopathy
    7. myocarditis
    8. Valvular heart disease
    9. Congenital heart disease

Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA)

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia refers to a change in heart rate that occurs during a natural breathing cycle. The vagus nerve is a cranial nerve that runs from the brain stem to the abdomen and plays an important role in the regulation of the heartbeat. It reduces the contraction force and the frequency of  the heart. During inhalation and exhalation, cells of the medulla oblongata send a signal from the parasympathetic nervous system via this cranial nerve to the heart. This causes a cyclic variation of the heart rate. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is a physiological variant and is not considered abnormal. In fact, it is the loss of this normal reflex that signals a heart problem.

RSA is common in children and adolescents and usually goes away with self-growth. However, a doctor should be consulted on:

    1. Very fast and irregular heartbeat,
    2. Very slow heartbeat,

Heart Arrhythmia in Children

What are the specific causes of heart arrhythmia in children?

    1. Congenital heart defect
    2. Side effect on medicines

Cardiac palpitations during pregnancy

What are the causes?

    1. Mental stress
    2. body changes
    3. Excessive caffeine consumption
    4. Physical stress
    5. anemia
    6. Lack of magnesium
    7. Side effects of drugs

Diagnostics and examination

Heart arrhythmia are diagnosed by listening to the stethoscope or by an electrocardiogram (ECG). For fetal arrhythmias, echocardiography is usually performed; in the 20th week of pregnancy usually a morphological ultrasound. If the gynecologist sees a congenital anomaly, he may request  chocardiography, as this examination is much more thorough.

Therapy of heart arrhythmia

In some arrhythmias, it does not require treatment, in other cases, rapid treatment must be used to prevent heart failure.

Possible treatments are:

Physical exercises

There are several physical exercises (physiokinesis therapy) that stimulate the stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system (the part of the nervous system that affects rest, digestion, energy recovery and recovery).

The techniques that affect the vagus nerve (vagal maneuvers) affect the parasympathetic nervous system and promote the health of the heart.

With regard to nutrition, stimulating foods, such as coffee and chocolate, are not recommended as they can affect the heart rate.

Treatment of the accelerated heartbeat

Cardioversion. If the tachycardia comes from the atria (for example, atrial fibrillation), the doctor can perform a cardioversion. It is an electrical shock that serves to restore the heart to its normal rhythm.

This procedure is usually performed in a supervised environment and does not cause pain. Emergency cardioversion (defibrillation) is also used in ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.

Ablation therapy. In this procedure, a catheter is inserted through the blood vessels to the heart. It is placed over the place where the arrhythmias arise. The electrodes on the catheter tip are heated by radiofrequency energy.

Another method involves cooling over the catheter to freeze the tissue that is not functioning properly. Both methods destroy (ablate) a small portion of the heart tissue and create an electrical block along the pathway that causes the arrhythmia.

Implantable devices

Pacemaker. A pacemaker or pacemaker is an implantable device that helps regulate a slow heartbeat (bradycardia). A small device is placed under the skin near the collarbone. An insulated wire leads from the device to the heart where it is anchored. If the pacemaker is recording too low a heart rate or heartbeat, electrical impulses are sent to stimulate the heart to a faster heartbeat or to continue the heartbeat. Most pacemakers have a detection device that turns off when the heart rate is above a certain threshold when the frequency becomes too slow again.

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD).

The doctor may prescribe this device to a patient at high risk for malignant and potentially fatal arrhythmias: ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. An ICD is a system with a battery implanted near the left clavicle. One or two electrodes go from the ICD via veins to the heart.The ICD continuously controls the heart rhythm. If too slow a rhythm, it stimulates the rhythm like a pacemaker. In fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia, it sends low-energy pulses to restore normal heart rhythm.

Surgical treatment

In some cases, surgical intervention may be recommended for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias:

Maze procedure. The surgeon puts a series of incisions in the atria. These lesions heal in the form of fibrous scar tissue, which has an insulating effect. In this way, the electrical impulses are steered into correct paths, thereby enabling an efficient heartbeat. The surgeon can use an instrument that ices the tissue, a high-frequency probe, or a scalpel to create scars.

Coronary bypass surgery. In severe coronary artery disease and frequent ventricular tachycardia, the physician may recommend coronary artery bypass graft surgery. This can improve the perfusion of the heart and reduce the frequency of ventricular tachycardias. 

Medical therapy

Many medications are available to treat cardiac arrhythmias. Some of the prescribed medications are listed here.

antiarrhythmics

These medications are used to reduce the symptoms of tachycardia.

Medicines prescribed for this purpose are:

    1. Amiodarone (Cordarex)
    2. Dronedarone (Multaq)
    3. Flecainid (Tambocor)

calcium channel blockers

These medications prevent calcium from entering the heart cells and blood vessels. The result is that the blood vessels relax and the arterial blood pressure drops.

Calcium antagonists prescribed for cardiac arrhythmia include:

    1. Amlodipine (Norvasc)
    2. Diltiazem (dilemma)
    3. Nifedipine (Adalat)

Beta Blocker

These drugs block the effects of adrenaline, lowering blood pressure and cardiac output. The most commonly prescribed beta-blockers are:

  1. Metoprolol (Beloc)
  2. Nebivolol (Nebivolol Heumann)

Anticoagulants They are known as blood thinners and prevent the formation of blood clots. The use of these medications is important in preventing complications and risks of heart arrhythmia.

    1. warfarin
    2. aspirin

Natural Remedy For Arrhythmia

Herbal remedies for heart arrhythmia include hawthorn and linden, which reduce tachycardia and cardiac palsies.