Pericardial effusion is a condition that shows the accumulation of fluid around the heart. The bilayer structure surrounding the heart is known as the pericardium, and normally there is a thin layer of fluid between the layers. High volume fluid may accumulate in the pericardium as a result of injury or illness – it may also be due to inflammation or bleeding.

Too much fluid around the heart can put extra pressure on the heart and leave it untreated – it can be a deadly condition.

Is fluid around the heart dangerous?

The answer depends largely on the cause of the excess fluid. There are a variety of causes, and different causes correlate with the danger of the disease.

In many cases, the fluid around the heart is the result of a viral infection and will clear itself – in which case the condition is less dangerous. When fluid around the heart is the result of trauma or autoimmune disease, it is very dangerous.

Types of fluid around the heart (pericardial effusion)

There are four types of pericardial effusion: fibrinous effusion, serous effusion, purulent effusion, and hemorrhagic effusion. Serous effusion is associated with irritation of the pericardium, with excess fluid excreted from the visceral layer of the serous pericardium.

The fibrous effusion contains fibrin, which is organized and forms adhesions. Hemorrhagic effusion is the result of mixing blood with other substances in the body, and purulent effusion is an accumulation of pus around the heart, often caused by infection.

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Symptoms of fluid around the heart

Symptoms of pericardial effusion gradually increase with increasing fluid retention. Symptoms may include shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, difficulty breathing while lying, chest pain on the left side and chest fullness.

If symptoms of chest pain persist, call 911 immediately for a few minutes, or when breathing becomes increasingly difficult or painful.

What causes fluid around the heart?

As mentioned, there are a number of causes of pericardial effusion that vary in severity. Occurs in some cases, when the cause cannot be determined, it is known as idiopathic pericarditis.

Causes of fluid around the heart are:

  • Inflammation of the pericardium caused by heart attacks and heart surgery
  • Autoimmune diseases such as lupus
  • Spread of cancer, especially lung cancer, breast cancer or melanoma
  • Perikardkarzinom
  • Radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer
  • Waste product in the blood as kidney failure
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Virus, bacterial, fungal or parasitic infections
  • Breast or heart trauma
  • Certain prescription medicines, such as medicines for the treatment of hypertension, epileptic seizures or tuberculosis drugs

Diagnosis of pericardial effusion

Your doctor will perform a series of tests to correctly diagnose pericardial effusion. These tests include:

  • Medical examination
  • Echocardiogram that uses sound waves to get a picture of your heart. Your doctor will examine the space between the heart and pericardium to determine the extent of fluid retention. There are two types of echocardiograms: transthoracic or transesophageal, which is either a device over the chest or a tube in the esophagus.
  • Electrocardiograms that recorded electrical signals from the heart
  • Chest X-ray
  • Use of MRI or CT Scan as imaging techniques
  • Blood tests

Guidelines on Pericardial Casting Treatment

The treatment of pericardial effusion is based on the underlying cause of the disease. This means that your doctor may recommend anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, corticosteroids or aspirin. If these treatments are not successful, your doctor will need to drain the fluid around the heart by inserting a thin needle and catheter. Other treatments include balloon pericardiotomy – which uses a deflated balloon to stretch the layers around the heart -, open heart surgery, and the removal of all or parts of pericardium, which is often used in recurrent cases.

To avoid complications from pericardial effusion, it is best you see your doctor the moment you begin to experience symptoms. When it comes to matters of the heart, you do not want to fool around. If you have any breast-related symptoms, you should have yourself examined as this may also be an indication of a heart attack.

Anyone who suffers from a lung disease, who once smoked or who had to passively smoke, should select his food targeted. Because with a certain diet, lung health can be very well influenced. It provides the nutrients and nutrients that help the lungs cleanse and regenerate. At the same time, a lung-friendly diet is free of components that could damage the lungs or hinder their recovery. The daily drink for lung cleansing is an important component in a lung-friendly diet.

The daily drink for healthy lungs

Numerous environmental impacts make the lungs, but also the usual bad habits, especially smoking and passive smoking. Medical advances have not led to any changes in the area of lung diseases. The situation is no different today than it was a hundred years ago.

Of course, a corresponding genetic predisposition or living conditions in childhood contribute to the development of lung diseases. However, your own way of life and diet also significantly affects the condition of your lungs.

The healthier you feed, the better your lungs are, the better they can protect themselves from harmful influences and the better they can recover and recover. Support your body so it can break down diseased lung tissue and build healthy lung tissue!

We present a drink that is presented on the net as a “drink for lung cleansing”. It is an excellent introduction to a healthy diet and can be drunk daily. Of course, this drink not only benefits the lungs but – as usual in naturopathic measures – the entire organism.

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Three main ingredients

The three main ingredients of the lung cleansing drink are turmeric, ginger, and onions. All three have outstanding properties and are extremely positive for both lung health and general health. Each of the three foods is a healthy gain in itself. However, if they are combined with each other, their effect seems to multiply especially for the lungs.

  • Turmeric

Turmeric has long since become a kind of all-around agent. There is hardly a health problem that turmeric would not have a positive effect on. The radiant yellow root of the Southeast Asian region has such numerous health benefits that the enumeration of its characteristics would fill the book. For example, it has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifying, digestive, blood-thinning, cholesterol-lowering, antiviral, antibacterial and anti-cancer effects. Of course, most of these properties also greatly improve lung health.

Even with the treatment of tuberculosis – a bacterial lung disease – turmeric or curcumin can be helpful. The yellow substance activates the body’s defense so well that the causative bacteria can be fought faster.

  • Ginger

Ginger is usually taken with a nervous stomach, as it protects the stomach lining, fights nausea and can prevent stomach ulcers. In addition, the ginger has a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. Especially the lungs are daily exposed to a continuous rush of harmful substances from the breathing air. The ginger can counteract the resulting free radicals and inflammatory processes.

Its sharpness also helps with the elimination of mucus and pollutants from the lungs. Since it has a relaxing effect on the bronchial muscles, it is also a helpful measure of asthma.

  • Onions

The specific plant substances of onions (eg quercetin) have such a positive effect on lung health that in the English-speaking world it means “on onion a day preservation cancer away” – one onion per day keeps lung cancer away.

A study by the University of Hawaii found that more than 1000 people (half were healthy, the other half suffering from lung cancer), that although smoking was the main reason for the development of lung cancer, but also the increased consumption of onions (also of grapefruit and apples) could protect against lung cancer. The more onions a person had in their diet, the less likely they were to be found among the lung cancer patients. Already 20gr of onions per day halved the lung cancer risk.

The Recipe

In addition to the three main ingredients mentioned, you only need water and a sweetener of your choice for the lung cleansing drink. First, make a kind of syrup, which is stored in the refrigerator. Of these, take now twice daily two tablespoons, preferably two hours before or after a meal, for. B. in the morning and in the evening.

Ingredients:

  • 2 tbsp turmeric powder or 2.5 tbsp freshly grated turmeric root
  • 400 g of onions chopped
  • 1 thumb-sized piece of ginger grated
  • 400 g honey, maple syrup, molasses, yacon syrup, rice syrup or similar
  • 1 liter of water

Note: Since some active ingredients – especially turmeric – are fat-soluble, we recommend adding 1 tbsp of coconut oil to the mixture (or another oil of your choice). Even pepper should the bioavailability of z. For example, add curcumin (a turmeric ingredient) so that you can add ΒΌ tsp of black pepper. The original recipe of the drink, however, does without these two ingredients.

Preparation:

  • Stir the honey or syrup into the water and let it boil.
  • Put the ginger and onions in the boiling water
  • Add turmeric (as well as fat and pepper) and reduce heat to medium.
  • Simmer the mixture until it has shrunk by half in volume.
  • Pour the mixture through a fine sieve into a sealable glass jar and allow to cool to room temperature.
  • Put your lung cleansing drink, which now looks more like a syrup, in the fridge.

Other forms of application are possible

The recipe for the lung cleansing drink was created to make daily intake of the three ingredients as easy as possible. You can also take turmeric, ginger, and onions in other ways without any problem – even in raw form.

While there are usually no questions about using onions, cooking with ginger and turmeric

A vegetable dye appears to have the potential to protect passive smokers from tobacco-related lung cancer, according to a November 2016 study. The substance is found in oranges, red peppers, squash, and many other fruits and vegetables. It’s called beta-cryptoxanthin and it can reduce the number of receptors that nicotine docks to in order to accelerate tumor growth. This tip is particularly valuable for passive smokers because they do not want to – in contrast to smokers – expose this additional cancer risk factor.

The substance in fruits and vegetables protects the lungs from cancer

Nicotine is the addictive substance in tobacco and some e-cigarette liquids. It protects cancer cells, ensuring that they really blossom. To do this, the docks on to their receptors and in this way encourages them to grow more.

Dr. Xiang-Dong Wang is a cancer researcher at Tufts University in Boston. Since 2004 he has been researching carotenoids, the dyes that give color to many yellow and red fruits. Wang tries to find out why these substances can prevent so many chronic diseases. In particular, the carotenoid beta-cryptoxanthin is the focus of his investigations. The substance is in z. In the following foods:

  • oranges
  • tangerines
  • pumpkins
  • Red peppers
  • in many other oranges, yellow and red fruits, and vegetables
  • and also in green leafy vegetables, where the dye is covered by green chlorophyll

The current study by Dr. med. Wang and team were published in the journal Cancer Prevention Research and described how beta-cryptoxanthin (BCX) reduces the number of nicotine receptors, thus reducing the motivating influence of nicotine on lung cancer cells.

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Lung cancer-the most dangerous type of cancer

Dr. Wang says the new research shows how well eating fruits and vegetables can reduce the lung cancer risk of (passive) smokers.

Lung cancer is the type of cancer that causes the highest mortality each year. In Germany, nearly 50,000 people get lung cancer each year. There is over 220,000 new lung cancer diagnosed annually in the US, and over 150,000 people die of it.

Smoking is considered one of the major risk factors for lung cancer. According to the American Lung Association, a man can increase his lung cancer risk 23fold if he smokes. In contrast, a smoker has an “only” 13 times higher lung cancer risk than non-smokers.

However, it is particularly bad that passive smoking alone in the US alone causes over 7,000 deaths each year. Here people have to suffer and die because other people smoke ruthlessly in their presence.

Nicotine accelerates tumor growth

Tobacco smoke contains 7,000 components, many of which are carcinogens that can cause severe damage to the cells of the lungs and bronchial mucosa. So far, nicotine has not been considered a direct cause of lung cancer. However, studies have since shown that the addictive substance can accelerate the growth of lung tumors. Nicotine is therefore even very heavily involved in the development of lung cancer.

For example, in 2013, Warren and Singh wrote in the Journal of Carcinogenesis that it has long been known how badly lung cancer therapies work if the patient continues to smoke. The reason for this is that nicotine and its metabolites accelerate tumor growth in many different ways. For example, angiogenesis is promoted (formation of blood vessels to the tumor, so that it is better supplied with nutrients), the resistance of the tumor to therapies and also directly to the metastasis.

Nicotine causes a strengthening of the cancer

Wang and colleagues have now discovered that nicotine binds to the receptors on the lung surface, leading directly to a signal cascade, which in turn results in rapid cell division of cancer cells and the formation of new blood vessels for tumor delivery (angiogenesis).

Not only that, nicotine can also increase the number of these receptors – and the more nicotine receptors there are, the better the cancerous effect of nicotine. However, as Wang and his team believe, BCX appears to be effective in reducing the number of these receptors, which could now also lead to shrinkage of the tumor.

The more carotenoids (passive) smokers eat, the better they are protected

In earlier studies, Wang’s team had discovered a link between the frequent consumption of BCX-rich foods and a lower lung cancer risk in humans. In animal studies, the suspicion confirmed: who received BCX, experienced shrinkage of his lung tumors by 52 to 63 percent. BCX levels that are similar in humans to one red pepper or two tangerines per day have been effective.

Cell experiments were also performed. It also showed that the cells scatter less frequently in the presence of BCX than without BCX. Who is damned – for whatever reason – to passive smokers, should absolutely eat as healthy as possible, taking care to eat as many carotenoid-rich foods daily as possible.

COPD stands for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases. It is popularly called the smoker’s lung, which often shows the typical “smoker’s cough”, with shortness of breath and expectoration. Although the majority of smokers are affected, the number of non-smokers affected has steadily increased for years. Proper nutrition can not only prevent COPD. It can also influence the course of the disease very positively in the presence of an existing illness and make life worth living again. You can finally breathe easier, the mucus dissolves and the coughing subsides.

The diet determines the course of the disease in COPD

A wrong diet is also increasingly mentioned in scientific circles as a contributory cause of chronic diseases. Because the type of diet determines significantly whether an existing chronic disease progresses and is getting worse or whether it can improve again.

This applies to a variety of ailments, whether it is depression, arthritis, psoriasis, high blood pressure, breast cancer, polyneuropathy, multiple sclerosis, psychosis or whatever.

First studies have long been published, which prove the importance of nutrition in COPD and asthma. The very fact that obesity is a significant risk factor for lung disease and overweight is usually the result of an unhealthy diet, shows that it is high time to change the diet, which usually automatically leads to a normalization of weight.

Even some pulmonary specialists now advise a change in diet, so that it has long been appropriate reports on this experience:

Experience: Basic nutrition improves COPD

“My pulmonologist recommended a basic diet. I was skeptical at first. But if I consistently implement this diet, I can breathe easier, cough less and have significantly less mucus in my throat. I eat vegetables and low-acid fruits. I add a pinch of soda (sodium bicarbonate) to my drinking water and eat six small meals instead of the usual three large meals.

Some fish and poultry are allowed. Coffee, carbonated drinks, red meat, chocolate and fried are taboo. At first, I was worried that I would lose weight, but I did not lose much weight and regained it in terms of muscle mass thanks to my sports program. My new diet has another advantage. I no longer need acid blockers for the stomach. However, as soon as I sin, I notice it immediately, I feel worse and I return with pleasure to my basic diet. ”

Of course, there are always feedbacks like this: “I had to quit smoking. If I can not eat all that, what I like, I have no more joy in life. “Here is a decision to make: to feel good and to enjoy the enjoyment of healthy food or sitting in the old mess stay and cough the soul out.

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COPD risk decreases by one third with proper nutrition

We have already reported on a study published in February 2015 in the British Medical Journal. A full-bodied vegetable-rich diet had reduced COPD risk by a third in this study!

COPD is the acronym of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (English: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). It is a group of different respiratory diseases, including chronic obstructive bronchitis and pulmonary emphysema.

COPD-related diseases are characterized by systemic (whole-body) inflammation, respiratory tract inflammation, pulmonary function disorders, and shorter life expectancy. Main symptoms are cough, bronchitis, sputum, and respiratory distress.

In 2015, 30,000 people died of COPD in Germany alone. By comparison, lung cancer had 45,000 in the same year. However, lung health can be very well influenced by the diet.

In COPD, a change in diet is an important part of the therapy!

In the journal Nutrients, a review of the Center for Asthma and Respiratory Diseases of the University of Newcastle, Australia, was published in March 2015. The study focused on the influence of diet on lung health and especially on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

The participating researchers wrote that although medical care in this area is progressing more and more, a change in diet should always be carried out as an adjunct. For example, the Mediterranean diet offers itself as it has a protective effect against respiratory diseases in epidemiological studies.

Mediterranean diet instead of typical western diet

In the Mediterranean diet, you eat the most natural foods possible, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds, accompanied by occasional fish meals. Dairy products, meat, and poultry are rare. The source of fat is olive oil, which automatically reduces the consumption of unhealthy fats.

By contrast, the typical Western diet (white flour, meat, dairy, sweets, fries, salty snacks, and sweet desserts) increases the risk of becoming a victim of respiratory disease (asthma, COPD, etc.), and children who like to eat fast foods are more likely to develop asthma , That’s no surprise, as even a single high-fat fast-food meal increases the inflammation of the respiratory tract.

Fruits and vegetables

Many years ago, a study was published in which smokers were given beta-carotene – for the prevention of lung cancer. But then they did not get sick less often, but even more often with lung cancer. Once this unpleasant side effect was noticed, the study was stopped immediately and smokers were advised to stop taking beta-carotene. Meanwhile, however, it has come to the point where some people believe that dietary beta carotene (such as carrots) is harmful and can cause lung cancer. We explain how it behaves.

What is beta-carotene?

Beta carotene is a phytochemical in the carotenoid family. Carotenoids, in turn, are fat-soluble plant substances with yellow to red coloring. A diet rich in carotenoids is therefore used when the diet contains a high proportion of yellow and orange or even red vegetables.

Beta-carotene is the best known carotenoid. Hardly any other food is as rich as it is in carrots and kale. Although green cabbage is green and not yellow or orange, the green of chlorophyll covers the orange tones of beta-carotene.

Which carotenoids are there?

Other carotenoids are, for example

  • the alpha-carotene (eg in pumpkin and carrots),
  • Lycopene (especially in tomatoes),
  • the beta-cryptoxanthin (eg in pumpkin and red pepper),
  • lutein (eg in savoy cabbage, parsley, and kale),
  • Astaxanthin (produced by algae) and
  • the zeaxanthin (eg in red pepper).

All of them are considered to be powerful antioxidants that fight free radicals and oxidative stress and can thus prevent many diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, rheumatic diseases, eye diseases, as well as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s and cancer.

Does beta carotene protect against lung cancer?

As late as the 1980s, beta carotene was considered very healthy by all people – whether they were smokers or not. In 1986, even a study on this topic appeared (1,266 participants). They found that smokers who did not eat carrots had a three-fold higher risk of lung cancer than smokers who ate carrots at least once a week. A significantly increased risk of lung cancer also existed for those who only liked little green leafy vegetables. Liver and cheese (vitamin A) did not appear to have a protective effect because those who did not have either had no increased risk of ever developing lung cancer.

Another study (1,663 participants) in the same year showed similar, namely that a carotenoid-rich diet, in particular, smokers protected against lung cancer.

But who wants to bother with all the vegetables? So at least the thought of many smokers, who on the whole rather seldom eat health-conscious. However, since lung cancer is a desirable target for her and smoking cessation is rarely up for debate, the obvious solution was: why not simply take a beta-carotene pill every day? Because it was known that a high level of beta-carotene in the blood reduced the risk of lung cancer. So you could safely take the beta carotene in pill form.

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Beta-carotene in pill form increases the risk of lung cancer

In 1996, a study on beta-carotene pills, published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, was quickly launched. More than 29,000 men between the ages of 50 and 69 who smoked more than 5 cigarettes a day took 50 mg of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol ), 20 mg beta carotene, or both, or a placebo supplement for an average of 6 years.

Regarding vitamin E, there was no effect on lung cancer risk. Beta-carotene, however, appeared to increase lung cancer risk (but only slightly), especially in heavy smokers (more than 20 cigarettes per day) compared to smokers who smoked less. Even in men who also indulged in higher alcohol consumption, was due to the beta carotene intake an increased risk of lung cancer.

Study stop because of frequent lung cancer cases

Similar results were obtained by the so-called CARET study, which was published in the same year. Here, over 18,000 participants were given 30 mg beta-carotene daily and 25,000 IU vitamin A or placebo. The study had to be stopped after just 21 months, as the beta carotene group had 28 percent more lung cancers and 17 percent more deaths. The participants of the study were smokers, former smokers or asbestos workers, ie all those with a high risk of lung cancer.

At the same time, there were also studies that did not show any disadvantages after taking beta-carotene, such as the study that also appeared in 1996 (in the New England Journal of Medicine) and found that:

Beta-carotene in pill form does not always harm

More than 22,000 healthy men between the ages of 40 and 84 took 50 mg beta-carotene or placebo every other day for 12 years. These included smokers as well as former smokers and non-smokers. At the end of the 12 years, however, no significant differences in cancer risk, cardiovascular or mortality risk could be identified. In the beta-nicotine group, even fewer men had lung cancer than the placebo group (82 versus 88), which was not statistically significant.

Three years later (1999), a study of nearly 40,000 healthy women – whether smokers or non-smokers – found that dietary supplementation with 50 mg beta-carotene every other day for an average of 2.1 years does not affect the risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease even the mortality had.

Problematic: The

The doctor can use the bronchoscope to examine the lungs and airways. In addition, the method helps in the treatment, for example, to extract viscous mucus. During lung reflection, the doctor introduces a bronchoscope into the airway via the mouth or nose. Modern bronchoscopes consist of a soft, flexible tube with a diameter of two to six millimeters. At the top of the tube sits a camera with the light source. This camera sends its images in real time to a monitor on which the doctor examines the patient’s airways.

In addition, the bronchoscope can inject and aspirate liquid and thereby perform a so-called bronchial lavage. In addition, very small pliers or brushes can be advanced through the tube and tissue samples taken. These biopsy specimens will be examined later by the doctor under a microscope. In addition, a miniature ultrasound head can image the environment of the airways.

For what reasons does the doctor perform a bronchoscopy?

A bronchoscopy may be necessary for both treatment and diagnosis, for example, if there is suspicion of lung cancer in the room or if treatment is to be scheduled for a known lung tumor. Doctors can also use this method to introduce radioactive substances into the lungs in order to irradiate tumors locally. Restrictions of the respiratory tract can be clarified by bronchoscopy. Similarly, the doctor can investigate reduced ventilation of partial areas of the lung, so-called atelectasis. With the lung reflection and bronchial lavage cells and germs can also be extracted from the lungs.

Doctors also use lung plasmas to look for and remove foreign bodies. In ventilated patients, the position of the breathing tube can also be corrected with it. In addition, secretions such as mucus plugs can be washed away with the bronchoscope and inserted so-called stents, which seemed to the airways from the inside and keep them open.

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How is an examination with the bronchoscope going?

On the day of the examination, the patient comes sober. He receives a spray that stuns the throat and suppresses the gagging. Then, the patient is virtually always injected with a short narcotic into the vein, so that he feels nothing at all from the examination. If necessary, sedatives are also used.

The doctor introduces the bronchoscope through the mouth or nose into the trachea. Afterward, he examines the mucous membrane of the airways, which can be imagined as a “bronchial tree” with more and more ramifications. The doctor examines all bronchi to a maximum of the third or fourth diversion. This usually takes 10 to 15 minutes. The airways themselves are insensitive to pain.

If a bronchial lavage is needed, the doctor injects about 20-100 milliliters of sterile fluid into the lower respiratory tract and then sucks it off. It extracts bacteria and cells from the surface of the respiratory tract and subsequently examines them in the laboratory.

After the examination, the patient should abstain from eating and drinking for about two hours until the anesthetic of the throat has subsided. Otherwise, there is a risk of swallowing. If the patient has been given tranquilizers or anesthesia, they are not allowed to drive the same day.

What other types of bronchoscopy are there?

In addition to the lung reflection with a flexible tube, there is still the investigation with a rigid tube. This tube can, for example, better remove foreign matter from the lungs. Even if a tumor severely restricts the airways, rigid bronchoscopy has advantages. Sometimes the doctor can remove tumors directly using laser devices or argon bombers. Argon beamer is coagulation devices that transfer energy via argon gas and soil the tissue two to three millimeters deep. The doctor uses them to destroy tissue and stop bleeding. If he has to use stents to stretch a constriction, it works better with the rigid bronchoscope.

Is a bronchoscopy dangerous?

The bronchoscope may cause nosebleeds or sore throat with difficulty swallowing, hoarseness or coughing, and very rarely injure the larynx. Even short-term fever sometimes occurs afterwards, especially in lavages. Severe incidents are very rare in bronchoscopy.

Removing the tissue samples may cause slight bleeding. Therefore, one should expect in the first two days that you abhustet blood to a small extent. Every now and then, the bleeding is so severe that they have to be breastfed by the endoscope.

In some cases, injury to the alveoli causes the lungs to leak and form a so-called pneumothorax. This means that air flows into space between the lungs and the surrounding lung cavity and causes the feeling of being short of air. Then, if necessary, the application of a chest tube is necessary: This plastic tube through the chest wall conveys the infiltrated air to the outside.

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Possible exclusion reasons

Bronchoscopy can be problematic in generally very poor condition or serious comorbidities: If a heart failure or an acute

Persistent coughing with sputum indicates chronic bronchitis. Smoking is the most important risk factor. Those who ignore the signs risk serious lung disease.

In short, what is chronic bronchitis?

Chronic bronchitis means that the bronchi are permanently inflamed. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), bronchitis is considered to be chronic if the symptoms of cough and sputum persist for two consecutive years for at least three months each year.

The bronchi are the continuation of the trachea. It divides into two main bronchi at the lower end. These lead the breathing air into the two lungs. There, the bronchi branch out ever finer until they end in the microscopic small alveoli, where the actual gas exchange, ie the vital intake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide takes place.

Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from chronic bronchitis during their lifetime. Smoking is considered the biggest risk factor (colloquially “smoker’s cough”), but there are also many other triggers, which is why a reduction in smoking behavior falls short.

The most important therapy measure for smokers is the smoke stop. Various medications, adapted sports and special breathing techniques can help additionally.

Chronic bronchitis can lead to COPD – a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The airways are then permanently constricted and alveoli are broken down (emphysema).

Causes and risk factors: How does chronic bronchitis develop?

Risk of tobacco smoke: Smoking is the leading cause of chronic bronchitis. Tobacco smoke damages the respiratory tract in different ways: First, it destroys the cilia in the bronchial mucosa. These normally transport mucus and pollutant particles contained therein and thus exercise a cleaning function. On the other hand, tobacco smoke promotes inflammatory processes, weakens the immune system and causes more mucus to be formed in the bronchi. Especially at night while lying down secretions accumulate, which leads to a morning cough with sputum. Passive smoking also increases the risk of chronic bronchitis.

Air pollutants: Certain gases, dusts, and vapors pollute some people in the workplace. These pollutants can also cause lung problems and cause chronic bronchitis.

Common respiratory infections: Bacterial and viral infections are more common in chronic bronchitis. It often remains unclear whether they are the cause or the consequence of the respiratory disease.

Genetic causes: A certain genetic component can be identified in chronic bronchitis and its consequences. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, which increases the risk of pulmonary emphysema and may be associated with symptoms of chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, where lung involvement often begins as chronic bronchitis, and ciliary disorder, in which mutations are either missing or defective, are well-characterized Formation of the cilia on the bronchial mucosa leads.

Other underlying diseases: Certain diseases are associated with chronic bronchitis. It is usually hard to recognize cause and impact. Examples are asthma, chronic sinusitis, and pulmonary tuberculosis. A hyperreactive bronchial system, as is typical in people with an allergy, may in rare cases favor chronic bronchitis.

Is chronic bronchitis contagious?

Chronic bronchitis is not intrinsically contagious – unlike acute bronchitis, which is often the case. If respiratory tract infections occur as part of chronic bronchitis, they can be contagious.

Symptoms: How is chronic bronchitis noticeable?

The classic symptom of chronic bronchitis is coughing with expectoration of viscous mucus. The cough occurs, especially in the morning.

Chronic bronchitis often begins insidiously and may initially go unnoticed. Because a clogged cough that lasts for a long time, sufferers often lead back to a supposedly harmless, perhaps “abducted” cold. They do not take the symptom seriously.

Chronic bronchitis can be fluent in COPD. If there is shortness of breath and tightness of the chest during physical exertion, this is a possible sign that COPD has already developed. However, there may be other causes behind such symptoms, such as angina pectoris.

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When is a bronchitis chronic?

According to the WHO definition, it is chronic bronchitis if the symptoms of coughing and expectoration occur for two consecutive years for at least three months a year most days of the week.

What is an exacerbation?

Doctors speak of an exacerbation when the patient’s complaints suddenly worsen. This occurs especially in advanced disease and during the cold season. In the majority of cases, respiratory infections are the trigger. If very severe COPD is present, an exacerbation can be life-threatening.

Important: Take respiratory symptoms seriously. See the doctor if symptoms persist like coughing persistently or if shortness of breath occurs.

Chronic bronchitis: What are the consequences of the disease?

Anyone who is healthy breathes automatically – without thinking about what the lungs do. Some even blame the vital organ for exertions such as smoking. This can lead to mortal danger in diseases of the lungs and respiratory tract.

The human lungs: every day in adults, around 10 000 liters of air flow through.

Without realizing it, adult, healthy people breathe at rest about 12 to 16 times a minute. Each time, about half a liter of air flows through the airways into the lungs and out again.

Construction and location

Physicians refer to all parts of the body, which are traversed by the inhalation and exhalation of air as airways: Through the mouth and nose, the air passes through the throat into the trachea. The trachea lies behind the breastbone and divides in the thorax into a left and a right main bronchus. These lead together with the respective pulmonary vessels to the left or right lung.

The lung (Latin: Pulmo) is in fact paired. Each of the two lungs is supplied with its own blood vessels and, with the respective main bronchus, also has its own air supply, which enters the lungs together with the veins and arteries at the so-called pulmonary hilum. The left lung is slightly smaller than the right and consists of only two instead of three lobes because in its vicinity the heart is located and thus less space available. Each main bronchus divides according to the number of lung lobes in so-called lobe bronchi and then branches out into Segementbronchien and ever smaller bronchi and bronchioli until at the end of the small alveoli, the so-called alveoli.

They are the place where the lung performs its most important function, the gas exchange, giving the lung tissue its spongy appearance.

What are the job of the lungs and respiratory system?

The airways not only carry air into the lungs, but cilia on their walls also purify the air. Foreign matter such as bacteria and dust particles remain hanging in it and are transported along with the lying on the cilia on the pharynx throat direction. He is either swallowed unnoticed or – for example, if the cilia are unable to afford the transport – coughed off.

The most important task of the lung is the gas exchange. Since our body needs a lot of oxygen and has to excrete corresponding amounts of carbon dioxide, a large area is necessary for this. These provide the alveoli. They have very thin walls that almost directly border the blood vessels. This makes it possible for the oxygen from the respiratory air to pass through these walls into the oxygen-poor blood of the pulmonary vessels, while the carbon dioxide passes from the blood into the alveoli.

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Pulmonary and respiratory diseases

If the lungs become infected, it can hinder breathing and even have life-threatening consequences. It is not for nothing that lung and bronchial cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and pneumonia are among the ten leading causes of death in Germany. One of the most important risk factors for lung disease is smoking. Because tobacco smoke not only favors the development of malignant diseases such as lung cancer but also damages, among other things, the cilia, which transport phlegm and pathogens outside. This increases the risk of infection. Certain lung diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are very often the result of many years of smoking. If you want to do something good for your lungs, then you should do without cigarettes and similar tobacco products.

A vicious circle – the best way to describe the interaction of blood pressure with nicotine. At the end of the cycle, in addition to numerous organ diseases, there is also a heart attack. Although the summary of the problem can be expressed very simply, the actual process is highly complex. In addition, smoking addiction can also act as an enhancer of existing blood pressure problems.

The interaction of the organs

The causes of the rise in blood pressure caused by smoking addiction are three main factors. Specifically, they would be bad enough in and of themselves, but their inevitable interaction within body mechanisms makes them even more of a threat.

Sympathetic activity: The sympathetic nervous system is that part of the autonomic nervous system that controls the regulation of blood pressure as well as metabolic and respiratory functions. Under the influence of nicotine, however, this control mechanism gets out of balance and among other things causes an increase in heart activity and resistance within the blood vessels. The result is cardiac arrhythmia and partial to complete occlusion of the vessels.

Vessel constriction: As a result of the imbalance in the sympathetic or as a direct effect of smoking addiction, the narrowing of the blood vessels forms the core aspect of nicotine-related hypertension. Responsible for the vascular closure is not only the nicotine per se. Also contained in cigarette smoke additives may favor the arterial closure. Furthermore, the circulation and pumping capacity of the heart and blood vessels are severely impaired by the harmful substances, which offers hypertension further bases for manifestation. In this context, the danger of blood thickening caused by the smoke should not be underestimated, which may lead to further blockage of the vessels.

Lack of oxygen: Since the cigarette smoke a large amount of carbon monoxide gets into the blood, with permanent nicotine consumption and the supply of organs, especially the heart, with oxygen at risk. Now O2 is of essential importance for the integrity of the organs and their functionality. A deficiency supply, therefore, brings about serious organ damage. Heart attacks and strokes are thus the worst danger when smoking, while hypertension in this area, merely ‘a precursor to the complete failure of the heart.

Hypertension-and-Smoking-Addiction

The interaction of risk factors

The exact value of systolic blood pressure increase is between 7 mmHg and 10 mmHg when smoking. However, further increases may be added if smoking is associated with one of the following aspects.

  • Smoking due to stress in most cases implies that high blood pressure is already present before consumption. This results from the increased heart activity that results from stressful situations.
  • The same applies to cigarette consumption in combination with obesity. In addition, weight-related arteriosclerosis and vasoconstrictive substances meet and, together, provide even greater resistance within the blood vessels.
  • Smoking addiction in concert with alcohol can not only increase the risk of hypertension but also of cardiac arrhythmia. As nicotine constricts the vessels, alcohol temporarily expands them so that the pumping intervals of the heart become completely out of balance.

Also in connection with lack of exercise or a wrong diet. The risk of high blood pressure by smoking is greater than normal. In addition to the dysfunctional properties of nicotine here are still added to a nutrient deficiency or resilience problems that affect the activity of the heart and organs. Already existing dysfunctions of the organs, such as those caused by unhealthy foods or too little exercise, are further expanded by smoking cigarettes.

Fluid in the lungs is a broad term to describe two possible states that can give characteristic symptoms, such as a bubbling noise in the lungs (rattling) when breathing. Fluid accumulation may be in the lungs (pulmonary edema) or outside the lungs (pleural effusion), in the space between the lungs and the chest wall. The term fluid in the lungs is also used in the lungs to refer to mucus. Mucus or phlegm is really a thick, sticky secretion even though lung water is a thin fluid. Other fluid accumulation can be the result of blood or pus.

The lungs enter the thorax (chest) and lie on either side of the heart. Air travels through the air passages that surround the nose, throat (neck), trachea (trachea) and bronchi. The lung tissue is made up of small air sacs, known as alveoli, which is thin and surrounded by blood capillaries. The structure of the respiratory system allows an exchange of gases, so that essential oxygen is taken into the body and waste products, along with gases, are excreted by the exhaled air. The lung is enclosed in an airtight pleural cavity, with a small pleural space separating the lungs from the chest wall. This cavity is lined by the pleural lining, which also creates a small pleural fluid to reduce the friction between the chest wall and lungs while breathing.

Fluid in the lungs

The most common cause of fluid in the lungs is mucus or mucous produced by the lining of the airways. The airway is lined with a mucous membrane that produces a specialized tissue that produces mucus. This mucus lubricates the lining, which can dry out due to the movement of air and out of the channels as well as stopping dust or microorganisms in the air. However, under certain conditions, the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract can generate excessive amounts of mucus and this can slowly sink down the air ducts until it settles in the lungs. The cough reflex or even spontaneous coughing will usually expel most mucus through the mouth (sputum), but in cases of excessive mucus production, obstructive airway disease or diminished cough, the build-up of mucus will quickly settle in the lungs.

Lung water or water in the lungs usually results from the interstitial fluid or blood plasma and may be an indication of a serious underlying condition, usually cardiovascular disease. This fluid in the lungs is known as pulmonary edema and may be accompanied by shortness of breath or shortness of breath (dyspnoea), a feeling of suffocation, anxiety, and restlessness. Abnormal breathing sounds are also present, especially crackling. Pulmonary edema could be considered a medical emergency and really immediate medical intervention is necessary.

Blood can also fill in the lungs, but this usually happens as a result of severe trauma and the cause is evident, as in a shot or puncture wound. In most trauma cases, where blood can fill the lungs, the lungs collapse and the blood in the lungs collects in the chest cavity (hemothorax). Infections such as tuberculosis (TB) or lung cancer can also lead to blood accumulation in the lungs. Depending on the severity of the trauma, blood in the lungs will cause drowning and requires immediate medical attention. Pus can also occur in the lungs due to a lung abscess and also requires immediate urgent medical attention.

Causes of the fluid inside the lung

  • Bronchitis is the most common cause of mucus in the lungs and is often characterized by persistent cough. This respiratory disease can develop after the common

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