The doctor can use the bronchoscope to examine the lungs and airways. In addition, the method helps in the treatment, for example, to extract viscous mucus. During lung reflection, the doctor introduces a bronchoscope into the airway via the mouth or nose. Modern bronchoscopes consist of a soft, flexible tube with a diameter of two to six millimeters. At the top of the tube sits a camera with the light source. This camera sends its images in real time to a monitor on which the doctor examines the patient’s airways.

In addition, the bronchoscope can inject and aspirate liquid and thereby perform a so-called bronchial lavage. In addition, very small pliers or brushes can be advanced through the tube and tissue samples taken. These biopsy specimens will be examined later by the doctor under a microscope. In addition, a miniature ultrasound head can image the environment of the airways.

For what reasons does the doctor perform a bronchoscopy?

A bronchoscopy may be necessary for both treatment and diagnosis, for example, if there is suspicion of lung cancer in the room or if treatment is to be scheduled for a known lung tumor. Doctors can also use this method to introduce radioactive substances into the lungs in order to irradiate tumors locally. Restrictions of the respiratory tract can be clarified by bronchoscopy. Similarly, the doctor can investigate reduced ventilation of partial areas of the lung, so-called atelectasis. With the lung reflection and bronchial lavage cells and germs can also be extracted from the lungs.

Doctors also use lung plasmas to look for and remove foreign bodies. In ventilated patients, the position of the breathing tube can also be corrected with it. In addition, secretions such as mucus plugs can be washed away with the bronchoscope and inserted so-called stents, which seemed to the airways from the inside and keep them open.

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How is an examination with the bronchoscope going?

On the day of the examination, the patient comes sober. He receives a spray that stuns the throat and suppresses the gagging. Then, the patient is virtually always injected with a short narcotic into the vein, so that he feels nothing at all from the examination. If necessary, sedatives are also used.

The doctor introduces the bronchoscope through the mouth or nose into the trachea. Afterward, he examines the mucous membrane of the airways, which can be imagined as a “bronchial tree” with more and more ramifications. The doctor examines all bronchi to a maximum of the third or fourth diversion. This usually takes 10 to 15 minutes. The airways themselves are insensitive to pain.

If a bronchial lavage is needed, the doctor injects about 20-100 milliliters of sterile fluid into the lower respiratory tract and then sucks it off. It extracts bacteria and cells from the surface of the respiratory tract and subsequently examines them in the laboratory.

After the examination, the patient should abstain from eating and drinking for about two hours until the anesthetic of the throat has subsided. Otherwise, there is a risk of swallowing. If the patient has been given tranquilizers or anesthesia, they are not allowed to drive the same day.

What other types of bronchoscopy are there?

In addition to the lung reflection with a flexible tube, there is still the investigation with a rigid tube. This tube can, for example, better remove foreign matter from the lungs. Even if a tumor severely restricts the airways, rigid bronchoscopy has advantages. Sometimes the doctor can remove tumors directly using laser devices or argon bombers. Argon beamer is coagulation devices that transfer energy via argon gas and soil the tissue two to three millimeters deep. The doctor uses them to destroy tissue and stop bleeding. If he has to use stents to stretch a constriction, it works better with the rigid bronchoscope.

Is a bronchoscopy dangerous?

The bronchoscope may cause nosebleeds or sore throat with difficulty swallowing, hoarseness or coughing, and very rarely injure the larynx. Even short-term fever sometimes occurs afterwards, especially in lavages. Severe incidents are very rare in bronchoscopy.

Removing the tissue samples may cause slight bleeding. Therefore, one should expect in the first two days that you abhustet blood to a small extent. Every now and then, the bleeding is so severe that they have to be breastfed by the endoscope.

In some cases, injury to the alveoli causes the lungs to leak and form a so-called pneumothorax. This means that air flows into space between the lungs and the surrounding lung cavity and causes the feeling of being short of air. Then, if necessary, the application of a chest tube is necessary: This plastic tube through the chest wall conveys the infiltrated air to the outside.

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Possible exclusion reasons

Bronchoscopy can be problematic in generally very poor condition or serious comorbidities: If a heart failure or an acute

Anyone who is healthy breathes automatically – without thinking about what the lungs do. Some even blame the vital organ for exertions such as smoking. This can lead to mortal danger in diseases of the lungs and respiratory tract.

The human lungs: every day in adults, around 10 000 liters of air flow through.

Without realizing it, adult, healthy people breathe at rest about 12 to 16 times a minute. Each time, about half a liter of air flows through the airways into the lungs and out again.

Construction and location

Physicians refer to all parts of the body, which are traversed by the inhalation and exhalation of air as airways: Through the mouth and nose, the air passes through the throat into the trachea. The trachea lies behind the breastbone and divides in the thorax into a left and a right main bronchus. These lead together with the respective pulmonary vessels to the left or right lung.

The lung (Latin: Pulmo) is in fact paired. Each of the two lungs is supplied with its own blood vessels and, with the respective main bronchus, also has its own air supply, which enters the lungs together with the veins and arteries at the so-called pulmonary hilum. The left lung is slightly smaller than the right and consists of only two instead of three lobes because in its vicinity the heart is located and thus less space available. Each main bronchus divides according to the number of lung lobes in so-called lobe bronchi and then branches out into Segementbronchien and ever smaller bronchi and bronchioli until at the end of the small alveoli, the so-called alveoli.

They are the place where the lung performs its most important function, the gas exchange, giving the lung tissue its spongy appearance.

What are the job of the lungs and respiratory system?

The airways not only carry air into the lungs, but cilia on their walls also purify the air. Foreign matter such as bacteria and dust particles remain hanging in it and are transported along with the lying on the cilia on the pharynx throat direction. He is either swallowed unnoticed or – for example, if the cilia are unable to afford the transport – coughed off.

The most important task of the lung is the gas exchange. Since our body needs a lot of oxygen and has to excrete corresponding amounts of carbon dioxide, a large area is necessary for this. These provide the alveoli. They have very thin walls that almost directly border the blood vessels. This makes it possible for the oxygen from the respiratory air to pass through these walls into the oxygen-poor blood of the pulmonary vessels, while the carbon dioxide passes from the blood into the alveoli.

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Pulmonary and respiratory diseases

If the lungs become infected, it can hinder breathing and even have life-threatening consequences. It is not for nothing that lung and bronchial cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and pneumonia are among the ten leading causes of death in Germany. One of the most important risk factors for lung disease is smoking. Because tobacco smoke not only favors the development of malignant diseases such as lung cancer but also damages, among other things, the cilia, which transport phlegm and pathogens outside. This increases the risk of infection. Certain lung diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are very often the result of many years of smoking. If you want to do something good for your lungs, then you should do without cigarettes and similar tobacco products.

Teflon-coated cookware now looks back on an approximately 50-year-old kitchen history. As for cooking professionals, chefs and foodservice professionals, in particular, appreciate the practical pot and pan coating, as it makes burnt and glued food almost impossible. What’s more, Teflon makes it easier to clean – a definite advantage in a profession where there is a lot of dirt and high time pressure when preparing different foods. Despite all the positive benefits, however, the possible health problems that may possibly arise from Teflon coatings are often hotly debated. The circumstances that cause these health concerns are discussed in more detail below.

Long-lasting pollutants and their health effects

The term Teflon per se in chemistry refers to the plastic polymer polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), which consists of fluorine and carbon. In particular, the commercial name was registered by DuPont, a US chemical company founded in 1802 as an explosives company. Throughout the history of the company, DuPont has been involved in other areas of chemical, energy and material production and is now one of the largest chemical companies in the world. From agriculture, nutrition, health, electronics and textiles to the construction industry, DuPont products are now to be found in all areas – including in the gastronomy sector. However, it is also the success story based on chemical manufacturing that is calling for Teflon’s health and environmental protection organizations. And rightly so, because Teflon is one of the so-called fluoropolymers, a special group of chemical compounds for whose industrial production perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is needed.

Synthetically produced perfluorooctanoic acid is one of the perfluorinated surfactants (PFTs), a range of long-lasting organic pollutants that can not be broken down by nature. They are used in chemistry-based industries in all kinds of fields, such as in

  • The photographic and paper industry (production of dirt and water repellent surfaces)
  • Electroplating (metal processing)
  • Aeronautical Engineering (Object Coatings)
  • The textile industry (production of outdoor clothing)

However, the versatility of perfluorooctanoic acid often misleads the danger that surfactants have for years been in dire suspicion of being harmful to health. Already in 2006 allegations were made by Greenpeace, which pointed to the health risks of the substances. For their study “Beware of chips: hot, greasy and poisonous”, the organization examined French fries from several German cities and found in all samples questionable residues of dangerous surfactants, which are said to damage long-term genetic material, as well as carcinogenic properties. In the same year, Greenpeace also drew attention to the dangerously high PFT content of the Bavarian river Alz, which is heavily polluted with chemicals due to wastewater from the nearby Gendorf industrial park. Even the Federal Environment Agency could not completely exclude the genotoxic and biotoxic dangers of PFT in its opinion at that time, which proves that perfluorinated substances, as they are also found in Teflon, literally with caution.

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What scratched the image of the Teflon pan

What makes Teflon-containing polytetrafluoroethylene so dangerous for consumers is primarily the high cooking temperatures. The result is based on researchers from the Environmental Working Group (EWG) who, contrary to statements by DuPont, discovered that the polymeric coating cannot easily withstand temperatures up to 260 ° C without toxic fumes. In fact, the Teflon separated toxic particles from a constant heat input of 237 ° C and took no more than two to five minutes for this reaction. What this emanation of the cookware can do is extremely alarming:

  • Organ damage in humans and animals:

Since the toxins contained in Teflon cannot be broken down by nature and the body, they permanently deposit in the organs and cause a creeping poisoning of the entire organism. The toxic effect can increase the risk of tumor formation in animals as well as in humans, adversely affect thyroid function or damage the immune system and the reproductive organs.

  • the increased mortality rate in animals:

In particular, ornamental birds kept indoors, such as canaries, are the first to feel the health risk posed by PTFE vapors. Since their sensitive organism, especially the respiratory system, are extremely sensitive to pollutants, a PTFE poisoning can have deadly consequences for the feathered friends within a very short time. Similar effects have been observed by Greenpeace on fish stocks in Alz.

  • Malformations in newborns:

Similar to radioactive radiation, it has been proven that PTFE also has a very dangerous effect on the genetic material. However, a 1981 in-house study that found that children of DuPont employees who came into contact with perfluorooctanoic acid, an increased malformation rate had, but was concealed by the Group.

A toxic conclusion

Given all these risks and the fact that in America already 95% of the population carry high levels of PTFE in their blood, Teflon coated cookware does not really seem to be the best choice. Therefore, put your own and your children’s health in front of the uncomplicated cooking and resort to traditional pans and pots. If you still use Teflon pans, however, make sure that the material is not overheated and that the heat input does