What is Heart Arrhythmia, Symptoms, Causes And Therapy

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Heart arrhythmia is a disorder characterized by an accelerated or severely slowed heartbeat. The change in heart rate is due to an increase or decrease in electrical activity in the heart muscle. Expansion of the heart is controlled by electrical signals or impulses from the brain. An interruption in the transmission of these electrical pulses may result in the suspension of a heartbeat. The values of a normal adult heartbeat are 60 to 100 beats per minute. If you have a heartbeat outside this area, talk to your doctor about it.

Arrhythmia is often a contraindication to sports.

When do you have to worry?

Benign arrhythmias manifest at the level of the atria (for example, atrial fibrillation) or the atrioventricular sinus. They do not lead to the death of the person. Malignant arrhythmias that can lead to death include tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation.

Causes of heart arrhythmia

Here are the main causes of irregular heartbeat and arrhythmias:

  • Coronary heart disease is a common cause of arrhythmia. It is a disorder in which the blood circulation in the coronary vessels is obstructed.
  • Stimulants such as smoking, alcohol abuse, drugs, and caffeine.
  • Abnormal sodium or potassium levels in the blood.
  • Some stomach disorders, such as a hiatus hernia or gastroesophageal reflux.
  • Stimulants in medicines for a cough and cold.
  • They can occur during convalescence after heart surgery.
  • Hypertension or high blood pressure.
  • Thyroid dysfunction or hyperthyroidism are less common causes of arrhythmias.
  • Myocardial damage or fibrosis of the heart due to myocardial infarction.
  • Diabetes and insulin.

 

Symptoms of heart arrhythmia

The symptoms of an irregular heartbeat are very vague. Sometimes the patient does not feel it at all. Patients with serious arrhythmias may have few symptoms, while others with significant symptoms may present a less severe condition.

Symptoms include:

  1. Intermittent chest pain or angina, the most common symptom of an irregular heartbeat
  2. Fast and irregular frequency, strong tapping of the heart
  3. Fainting or syncope
  4. Difficult breathing, especially under stress
  5. Excessive sweating
  6. Fear and restlessness
  7. General malaise
  8. Dizziness or dizziness
  9. Fatigue

 

Asymptomatic arrhythmia

The asymptomatic arrhythmia is not always harmless and may cause blood clotting in the heart and / or a reduction in the amount of blood being pumped.

Heart Arrhythmia At Night

Nocturnal irregular heartbeat can have various causes. The most common are :

  • Diabetes
  • Hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism)
  • high blood pressure or hypertension
  • Other heart diseases
  • Some medicines
  • Smoke
  • Stressful situations
  • Some natural remedies

 

Arrhythmia after eating

When we eat, a large amount of blood is diverted to the digestive tract. The body immediately responds to this situation and tries to maintain normal blood pressure by increasing the heart rate and narrowing certain arteries. If this mechanism does not work, postprandial hypotension may occur (drop in blood pressure after eating). Older people may have arrhythmias after eating. People who may experience cardiac arrhythmias after meals include those with high arterial blood pressure or Parkinson’s disease.

Causes and symptoms of the disorder can vary from person to person, possibilities are:

  1. Some people suffer from tachycardia only in certain situations, for example, at night in bed, after eating sweet foods or foods with a high sodium content, etc.
  2. Inadequate water intake, which thickens the blood and thus forces the heart to work to pump the blood.
  3. Dysfunction of an endocrine gland.
  4. Problems of the digestive system.
  5. Excessive enjoyment of coffee and other stimulants.
  6. Disorders of the vagus nerve.
  7. Hiatus hernia (diaphragmatic hernia).
  8. Gastroesophageal reflux.
  9. Liver or kidney disease.
  10. People with a rapid resting heartbeat may have arrhythmias after eating.
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what-is-heart-arrhythmia

Atrial Fibrillation (AF)

Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of arrhythmia. In this disease, the heart beats irregularly and too fast. AF can be chronic, persistent or paroxysmal. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurs occasionally and temporarily, and is short-lived, from a few seconds to a few days.

Ventricular arrhythmia

This is a heart disorder in which the irregular rhythm of the heart and heartbeats come from the heart chambers. It can be divided into: ventricular tachycardia, ventricular bradycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. Tachycardia means that the heart rate exceeds 100 beats per minute, while bradycardia is characterized by beats below 60 beats per minute. Ventricular fibrillation is a disease in which the heart beats quickly and irregularly. The result is a reduction of the pumped blood.

causes

  1. Drug side effects
  2. caffeine
  3. nicotine
  4. High sodium and potassium levels in the blood
  5. Necroses and fibroses of the heart muscle
  6. cardiomyopathy
  7. myocarditis
  8. Valvular heart disease
  9. Congenital heart disease

 

Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA)

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia refers to a change in heart rate that occurs during a natural breathing cycle. The vagus nerve is a cranial nerve that runs from the brain stem to the abdomen and plays an important role in the regulation of the heartbeat. It reduces the contraction force and the frequency of the heart. During inhalation and exhalation, cells of the medulla oblongata send a signal from the parasympathetic nervous system via this cranial nerve to the heart. This causes a cyclic variation of the heart rate. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is a physiological variant and is not considered abnormal. In fact, it is the loss of this normal reflex that signals a heart problem.

RSA is common in children and adolescents and usually goes away with self-growth. However, a doctor should be consulted on:

  1. Very fast and irregular heartbeat,
  2. Very slow heartbeat, 

Heart Arrhythmia in Children

What are the specific causes of heart arrhythmia in children?

  1. Congenital heart defect
  2. Side effect on medicines

Cardiac palpitations during pregnancy

What are the causes?

  1. Mental stress
  2. body changes
  3. Excessive caffeine consumption
  4. Physical stress
  5. anemia
  6. Lack of magnesium
  7. Side effects of drugs

 

Diagnostics and examination

Heart arrhythmia are diagnosed by listening to the stethoscope or by an electrocardiogram (ECG). For fetal arrhythmias, echocardiography is usually performed; in the 20th week of pregnancy usually a morphological ultrasound. If the gynecologist sees a congenital anomaly, he may request  chocardiography, as this examination is much more thorough.

Therapy of heart arrhythmia

In some arrhythmias, it does not require treatment, in other cases, rapid treatment must be used to prevent heart failure.

Possible treatments are:

Physical exercises

There are several physical exercises (physiokinesis therapy) that stimulate the stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system (the part of the nervous system that affects rest, digestion, energy recovery and recovery).

The techniques that affect the vagus nerve (vagal maneuvers) affect the parasympathetic nervous system and promote the health of the heart.

With regard to nutrition, stimulating foods, such as coffee and chocolate, are not recommended as they can affect the heart rate.

 

Treatment of the accelerated heartbeat

Cardioversion. If the tachycardia comes from the atria (for example, atrial fibrillation), the doctor can perform a cardioversion. It is an electrical shock that serves to restore the heart to its normal rhythm.

This procedure is usually performed in a supervised environment and does not cause pain. Emergency cardioversion (defibrillation) is also used in ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.

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Ablation therapy. In this procedure, a catheter is inserted through the blood vessels to the heart. It is placed over the place where the arrhythmias arise. The electrodes on the catheter tip are heated by radiofrequency energy.

Another method involves cooling over the catheter to freeze the tissue that is not functioning properly. Both methods destroy (ablate) a small portion of the heart tissue and create an electrical block along the pathway that causes the arrhythmia.

 

Implantable Devices

Pacemaker. A pacemaker or pacemaker is an implantable device that helps regulate a slow heartbeat (bradycardia). A small device is placed under the skin near the collarbone. An insulated wire leads from the device to the heart where it is anchored. If the pacemaker is recording too low a heart rate or heartbeat, electrical impulses are sent to stimulate the heart to a faster heartbeat or to continue the heartbeat. Most pacemakers have a detection device that turns off when the heart rate is above a certain threshold when the frequency becomes too slow again.

 

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD).

The doctor may prescribe this device to a patient at high risk for malignant and potentially fatal arrhythmias: ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. An ICD is a system with a battery implanted near the left clavicle. One or two electrodes go from the ICD via veins to the heart.The ICD continuously controls the heart rhythm. If too slow a rhythm, it stimulates the rhythm like a pacemaker. In fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia, it sends low-energy pulses to restore normal heart rhythm.

Surgical treatment

In some cases, surgical intervention may be recommended for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias:

Maze procedure. The surgeon puts a series of incisions in the atria. These lesions heal in the form of fibrous scar tissue, which has an insulating effect. In this way, the electrical impulses are steered into correct paths, thereby enabling an efficient heartbeat. The surgeon can use an instrument that ices the tissue, a high-frequency probe, or a scalpel to create scars.

Coronary bypass surgery. In severe coronary artery disease and frequent ventricular tachycardia, the physician may recommend coronary artery bypass graft surgery. This can improve the perfusion of the heart and reduce the frequency of ventricular tachycardias.

 

Medical therapy

Many medications are available to treat cardiac arrhythmias. Some of the prescribed medications are listed here.

antiarrhythmics

These medications are used to reduce the symptoms of tachycardia.

Medicines prescribed for this purpose are:

  1. Amiodarone (Cordarex)
  2. Dronedarone (Multaq)
  3. Flecainid (Tambocor)

Calcium channel blockers

These medications prevent calcium from entering the heart cells and blood vessels. The result is that the blood vessels relax and the arterial blood pressure drops.

Calcium antagonists prescribed for cardiac arrhythmia include:

  1. Amlodipine (Norvasc)
  2. Diltiazem (dilemma)
  3. Nifedipine (Adalat)

Beta Blocker

These drugs block the effects of adrenaline, lowering blood pressure and cardiac output. The most commonly prescribed beta-blockers are:

  1. Metoprolol (Beloc)
  2. Nebivolol (Nebivolol Heumann)

Anticoagulants They are known as blood thinners and prevent the formation of blood clots. The use of these medications is important in preventing complications and risks of heart arrhythmia.

  1. warfarin
  2. aspirin

Natural Remedy For Arrhythmia

Herbal remedies for heart arrhythmia include hawthorn and linden, which reduce tachycardia and cardiac palsies.

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